Second B. Pharm

205 Biochemistry & Pathophysiology [Theory] 

Part-I Biochemistry 

  1. Biochemical organization of the cell and transport processes across cell [ 2 ]

  2. The concept of free energy, determination of change in free energy from [ 2 ]
    equilibrium constant and reduction potential bioenergetics, production of ATP and its biological significance. 

  3. Enzymes : Nomenclatures, enzyme Kinetics and its mechanism of action, [ 4 ] 
    mechanism of inhibition, isozymes and isoenzymes in clinical diagnosis. 

  4. Co-enzymes : Vitamins as co-enzymes and their significance, Metals as co- [ 4 ]
    enzymes and their significance. 

  5. Carbohydrates metabolism ; Conversion of polysaccharide to glucose- - [ 9 ]
    phosphate, glycolysis and fermentation and their regulation, Gluconeogenisis and glycogenolysis, metabolism of galactose and galactosemia. Role of sugar nucleosides in biosynthesis, and pentosephosphate pathway. 

  6. The citric acid cycle ; Significance, reactions and energetic of the cycle, [ 3 ]
    Amphibolic role of the cycle and Glyoxalic acid cycle. 

  7. Lipids metabolism ; Oxidation of fatty acids, beta-oxidation & energestics [ 5 ]
    alpha oxidation. r-oxidation, Biosynthesis of ketones bodies and their utilisation, biosynthesis of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, control of lipids metabolism, Essential fatty acids & eicosanoids [prostaglandens, thromboxens] phospholipids, and sphingolipids.

  8. Biological oxidation - Redox-potential, enzymes and co-enzymes [ 5 ]
    involved in oxidation reduction its control, The respiratory chain, its role in energy capture and its control, Energestics of oxidative phosphorylation, Inhibitors of respiratory chain and oxidative phosphorylation and, mechanism of oxidative phosphorylation. 

  9. Nitrogen & sulphur cycle ; Nitrogen fixation, ammonia assimilation, [ 3 ]
    nitrification and nitrate assimilation, sulphate activation, sulphate reduction. Incorporation of sulphur in organic compounds, Release of sulphur from organic compounds. 

  10. Metabolism of Ammonia and Nitrogen containing Monomers ; Nitrogen [ 8 ]
    balance, Biosynthesis of amino acids, catabolism of amino acids, conversion of amino acids to specialized products, Assimilation of ammonia, Urea cycle, metabolic disorders of urea cycle, metabolism of sulphur containing amino acids, porphyrin biosynthesis, formation of bile pigments, hyperbilirubinemia, purine nucleotide interconversion, pyrimidine biosynthesis, and formation of deoxyribonucleotides. 

  11. Biosynthesis of nucleic acids : Brief introduction of genetic organisation of [ 7 ]
    the mammalian, genome, alteration and rearrangements of genetic material, Biosynthesis of DNA and its replication, Mutation, physical & chemical mutagenesis/carcinogenesis, DNA repair mechanism, Biosynthesis of RNA. 

  12. Genetic code and protein synthesis ; Genetic code, components of [ 3 ]
    protein synthesis, and Inhibition of protein synthesis. 

  13. Regulation of gene expression. [ 2 ]

Part.II Pathophysiology 

  1. Basic Principles of cell injury and adaptation ; Causes of cellular [ 5 ]
    injury, pathogenesis, morphology of cell injury, Intracellular alterations in lipids, proteins and carbohydrates, cellular adaptation, atrophy, hypertrophy. 

  2. Basic Mechanism involved in the process of inflammation and repair ; [ 5 ]
    Alterations in vascular permeability and blood flow, migration of WBCs, acute and chronic inflammation, mediators of inflammation , brief outline of the process of repair.

  3. Pathophysiology of common diseases ; Like Rheumatoid arthritis, gout, [ 8 ]
    epilepsy, psychosis, depression, mania hypertension, Angina, congestive heart failure, [CCF], artherosclerosis, myocardial infraction, diabetes, pepticulcer, asthma, ulcerative colitis, hepatic disorders, acute and chronic renal failure, tuberculosis, urinary tract infections, Sexually Transmitted Diseases[STD], animas and common types of neoplasms. 

    wherever applicable the molecular basic should be discussed. 


Biochemistry & Pathophysiology [Practical] 
  1. To prepare standard buffers [citrate, phosphate, and carbonate] and measure pH 

  2. Titration curve for amino acids. 

  3. Separation of amino acids by two dimensional paper chromatography and gel electrophoresis 

  4. The separation of lipids by TLC. 

  5. Separation of serum proteins by electrophoresis on cellulose acetate. 

  6. Quantitative estimation of amino acids. 

  7. Quantitative estimation of proteins. 

  8. The identification of c-terminal amino acids of a protein. 

  9. The determination of glucose by means of the enzyme glucose oxides. 

  10. The isolation and assay of glycogen from the liner and skeletal muscle of rats. 

  11. Enzymatic hydrolysis of glycogen by alpha & beta amylase. 

  12. The isolation and determination of RNA and DNA.

  13. Effect of temperature on the activity of alpha- amylase. 

  14. Estimation of SGOT, SGPT, ALP, and BRN in the serum. 

  15. Simple experiments involved in the analysis of normal and abnormal urine: collection of specimen, appearance, determination of pH, sugars, proteins, urea and creatinine. 

Books Recommended :
    1. Harper’s Review of Biochemistry by Martin
    2. Outlines of Biochemistry by Conn and Stump
    3. Biochemistry by Lehninger
    4. Textbook of Biochemistry by Harron and Mazur
    5. Textbook of Biochemistry by Rama Rao
    6. Textbook of Biochemistry by Varunkumar Malhotra