Second B. Pharm

201. Pharmaceutics III (Unit Operations) Theory 

1. Size Reduction and size separation: [ 8 ]
Definition, objectives of size reduction, factors affecting size reduction, laws governing energy and power requirements of a mill, types of mills including ball mill, hammer mill, fluid energy mill, classification & methods of size separation -sieving, sedimentation, elutriation, cyclone separator, cutter mill and colloid mill.
2. Mixing: [ 9 ]
Theory of mixing, solid-solid, solid-liquid and liquid-liquid mixing, Selection of mixings, equipments. tumbler mixing, and agitator mixer, semi solids-agitator, shear, ultrasonic mixers. Solids-shaker, propeller, turbine, paddle. Industrial mixer-Nauta mixer & Diosna (R.M.G).
3. Filtration and Centrifugation: [ 8 ]
Theory of filtration, filter media, industrial filters including filter press, rotary filter, edge filter, cartridge filters, and membrane filters. Factors affecting filtration, mathematical problems on filtration, optimum cleaning cycle in batch filters. Principles of centrifugation, industrial centrifugal filters and centrifugal sedimenters. 
4. Crystallization: [ 8 ] 
Characteristics of crystals like purity, size, shape, geometry, habit forms, size and factors affecting them, solubility curves and calculation of yields. Supersaturation theory and its limitations, . Mierís supersolubility curve, nucleation mechanisms, crystal growth, study of various types of crystallizers, tankg, agitated batch, Swenson Walker, single vacuum, circulating magma and Krystal crystallizer. Caking of crystals and its prevention. Numerical problems on yields.
5. Evaporation :   [ 8 ]
Basic concept of phase equilibria, factors affecting evaporation, evaporators: film evaporators, single effect and multiple effect evaporators, Vapor recompression. Mathematical problems on evaporation.
6. Distillation :   [ 10 ]
Raoult's law, phase diagrams, volatility, simple, steam and flash distillations, principles of rectification, Rectification- columns packed, plate, efficiency of columns. McCabe Thiele method for calculation of number of theoretical plates, Azeotropic and extractive distillation. Mathematical problem on distillation. Molecular distillation, relative volatility, molar value on distillation. 
7. Drying :  [ 9 ]
Moisture content and mechanism of drying, rate of drying and time of drying, calculations, classification and types of dryers, dryers used in pharmaceutical industries and special drying methods - tray, fluidized bed, spray, freeze, tunnel, Microwave, IR dryers. Mathematical problem on drying. 
8. Automated process control systems:  [ 6 ] 
Process variable, temperature, pressure, flow, level and vacuum and their measurements. Elements of automatic process control, Introduction to Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM). 
9. Reactors and fundamentals of reactors design for chemical reactions.  [ 2 ]
Classification, types and design of reactors.
10. Extraction:  [ 4 ] 
Theory of extraction, solvents used extraction, methods, recovery of solvents.

Pharmaceutics III ( Unit Operations ) Practical
  1. Evaluation of filter media, determination of rate of filtration and study of factors affecting filtration including filter aids. 

  2. Experiments to demonstrate application of centrifugation. 

  3. Experiments to illustrate the influence of various parameters on the rate of drying. 

  4. Determination of rate of drying, free moisture content and bound moisture content.

  5. Experiments to illustrate principles of size reduction, Laws governing energy and power requirements of size reduction.

  6. Experiments to illustrate solid-solid mixing, determination mixing efficiency using different types of mixers. 

  7. Experiments to demonstrate various methods of size separation.

  8. Experiments to illustrate evaporation and rectification.

    1. Cooper and Gunn's Tutorial Pharmacy 
    2. Chemical Engineering by Badger and Banchero 
    3. Handbook of Chemical Engineering by Perry 
    4. Elementary Chemical Engineering by Max Peters 
    5. Unit Operations by McCabe and Smith 
    6. Theory & Practice of Industrial Pharmacy by Lachman & others 
    7. Pharmaceutics: The Science of Dosage Form Design by Aulton 
    8. Unit Operations Handbook by McKetta 
    9. Pharmaceutics by A.K. Seth & M. M. Patel 
   10. Chemical Engineering by Richardson & Coulson