First B. Pharm 

 

103 Pharmaceutical Chemistry-I (Theory) 


Part-I (Inorganic Pharmaceutical Chemistry )


Introduction to Pharmacopoeia :
An outline of methods of preparation, uses, sources of impurities, tests for purity identity and assay principles with examples including limit tests for iron, arsenic, lead, heavy metals, chloride, sulphate and special tests if any of the following classes of inorganic pharmaceuticals included in Indian Pharmacopoeia monograph details.
1. Gastrointestinal agents : [ 7 ]
Acidifying agents, Antacids, protective and Adsorbents, Cathartics:- Dil. Hydrochloric acid, Sod. Bicarbonate, Aluminium hydroxide gel, Calcium carbonate, Magnesium oxide, Magnesium trisilicate, Magnesium sulphate, Bismuth subcarbonate, Kaoline, Milk of magnesia, Activated charcoal, Sodium dihydrogen phosphate, Sodium potassium tartrate, Combination antacid preparation.
2. Major intra and extra-cellular electrolytes : [ 7 ] 
Physiological ions, Electrolytes used for replacement therapy, acid-base balance and combination therapy:- Sodium chloride and itís preparations, Potassium chloride and itís preparations, Ammonium chloride and its injection, Sodium acetate, Potassium acetate, Sodium bicarbonate, Sodium citrate, Calcium gluconate, Calcium lactate, Dibasic calcium phosphate, Magnasium sulphate, Sodium dihydrogen Phosphate, Electrolyte combination therapy. 
3. Essential and trace elements : [ 4 ]
Transition elements and their compounds of pharmaceutical importance:- Iron and haematinics, Mineral supplements, Ferrous fumarate, ferrous sulphate, Iodine, Iodine solutions, Potassium iodide.
4. Topical agents : [ 4 ]
Protectives, Astringents and Anti infectives:- Talc, Calamine, Zinc oxide, Titanium dioxide, Potassium permangnate, Chlorinated lime, Iodine, Iodine solutions, Povidone iodine, Boric acid, borax, Silver nitrate, Mild silver protein, Yellow mercuric oxide, Ammoniated mercury, Sublimed and precipitated sulfur, Selenium Sulphide, Alum, Zinc sulphate, Hydrogen peroxide, Antimony potassium tartrate.
5. Gases and Vapours : [ 4 ]
Inhalants and Respiratory stimulants:- Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, Nitrous oxide, Ammonium carbonate.
6. Dental products : [ 4 ]
Dentifrice and anti-caries agents:- Sodium fluoride, Calcium carbonate, Dibasic 
calcium phosphate, Zinc chloride.
7. Complexing and chelating agents used in therapy:- [ 3 ]
Disodium EDTA, Calcium disodium EDTA, Dimercaprol.
8. Miscellaneous agents : [ 4 ]
Sclerosing agents, expectorants, emetics, poisons and antidotes, sedatives etc:- Ammonium chloride, Potassium iodide, Antimony potassium tartrate, Sodium nitrite, Sodium thiosulphate, Potassium bromide.
9. Pharmaceutical Aids Used in Pharmaceutical Industry : [ 7 ]

  1. Acids, Bases, Buffers and Water. 
    Introduction, concepts of acid base, pH & dissociation constant of acid & base, Henderson Hasselbatch equation, mechanism of buffers, physiological buffers, physical & chemical properties of water, hard water and methods of softening hard water, ionic product of water. 
    Hydrochloric acid, Sulphuric acid, Nitric acid, Phosphoric acid, Boric acid, Strong Ammonium Hydroxide, Sodium hydroxide, Calcium hydroxide, Sodalime, Borate and phosphate buffers system, Purified water, W.F.I. , Sterile W.F.I. 

  2. anti-oxidants, preservatives, filter aids, adsorbents, diluents, excipients, suspending agents, colorants etc.:- 
    Sodium nitrite, Sodium thiosulphate, Sodium bisulphide, Sodium metabisulphite, Boric acid, Borax. Activated Charcoal, Kaoline, Bismuth subcarbonate, Dibasic calcium phosphate, Calcium sulphate, Bentonite, Aluminium hydroxide.

10. Inorganic Radiopharmaceuticals : [ 4 ]
Nuclear radiopharmaceutical, reactions, nomenclature, methods of obtaining their standards and units of activity, measurements of activity, clinical applications and dosage hazards and precautions. Sodium iodide 131 , Ferric chloride 59, Ferrous citrate 59 .Barium sulphate.

Part-II (Physical Pharmaceutical Chemistry-II)

1. Behavior of gases : [ 6 ]
Gas laws, ideal gas equations, Kinetic theory of gases, deviation from ideal behavior and explanations.
2. The liquid state : [ 6 ]
Study of chemical substances using physical properties such as :- surface tension, parachor, viscosity, refractive index, optical rotation, dipole moments and chemical constituents.
3. Solutions : [ 6 ]
Ideal and real solutions, solution of gases in liquids colligative properties,  partition coefficient, conductance and its measurement. Debye Huckel theory.
4. Thermodynamics : [ 6 ]
Zero, First, Second and third laws. Absolute temperature scale.  Thermochemical equations, phase equilibrium and Phase rule.
5. Adsorption : [ 6 ]
Freundlich and Gibbs adsorption isotherms, Langmuir theory of adsorption.
6. Photochemistry : [ 6 ]
Consequences of light absorption, Jablenski diagram, Lambert-Beer law, 
Quantum efficiency.
7. Chemical Kinetics : [ 6 ]
Zero, first and second order reactions, complex reaction, theories of reaction  kinetics, characteristics of homogenous and heterogeneous catalysis,  acid, base and enzyme catalysis.
8. Quantum mechanics : [ 6 ]
Postulates of quantum mechanics, operators in quantum mechanics, the 
Schrodinger wave equation.


Pharmaceutical Chemistry - I (Practicals)


The background and systematic qualitative analysis of inorganic mixtures up to 4 radicals. Six Mixtures to be analyzed preferably by semi-micro methods. All identification tests for pharmaceutical inorganic pharmaceuticals and qualitative tests for cations & anions as included in the Appendix of IP should be carried out.
Pharmacopoeial Limit tests.

Books Recommended
    1) Indian Pharmacopoeia. 
    2) Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry- Block and Soine.
    3) Concise Inorganic Chemistry- J.D.Lee 
    4) Modern Inorganic Chemistry- Liptrot
    5) Elements of Physical chemistry - Glasstone and Lewis
    6) Mellor's 'Modern Inorganic Chemistry'- Parker
    7) Inorganic and Theoretical chemistry- Taylor
    8) College chemistry- Linus Pauling
    9) General chemistry- Linus Pauling
   10) Essentials of Physical chemistry-Bahl and Tuli
   11) Bently and Driver's Text book of Pharmaceutical chemistry 
   12) Physical Pharmacy by Alfred Martin
   13) Remington's Pharmaceutical Science
   14) Vogel's Qualitative Inorganic Analysis Revised by G.S.Vehla
   15) Pharmaceutical Chemistry Part I by Beckett & Stanlake 


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