First B. Pharm 

 

101 . Pharmaceutics-I (Physical Pharmaceutics) Theory


1.States of Matter : [ 8 ] 
State and selected Properties : State of matter. Change in the state of matter, latent heats and vapour pressure, sublimation-critical point, eutectic mixtures, gases, aerosols- inhalers, relative humidity, liquid complexes, Liquid crystals, glassy state, solid-crystalline and amorphous, polymorphism.
2. Micromeritics and Powder Rheology : [ 12 ]
Particle size and distribution, average particle size, number and weight distribution, particle number, methods for determining particle volume, optical microscopy, sieving, sedimentation, measurement of particle shape, specific surface, methods for determining surface area, permeability, adsorption, derived properties of powders, porosity, packing arrangement, densities, bulkiness and flow properties.
3. Surface and Interfacial phenomenon : [ 10 ]
Liquid interface, surface and interfacial tension, surface free energy, measurement of surface and interfacial tensions, free energy, spreading coefficient, adsorption at liquid interfaces, surface active agents, HLB classification, solubilization, detergency, adsorption at solid interface, solid gas and solid-liquid interface, complex films, electrical properties of interface.
4. Viscosity and Rheology : [ 9 ]
Newtonian system, Law of flow, kinematic viscosity, effect of temperature, non-Newtonian systems, pseudoplastic, dilatant, plastic, thixotropy, thixotropy in formulation, determination of viscosity: capillary, falling ball, rotational viscometers.
5. Dispersion systems : [ 15 ]
        a. Colloidal dispersions : Definition, types, properties of colloids, protective colloids, applications of colloids
            in pharmacy.
        b. Suspensions and Emulsions : Interfacial properties of suspended particles, settling in suspensions, theory
            of sedimentation, effect of Brownian movement, sedimentation of flocculated particles, sedimentation
            parameters, wetting of particles, controlled flocculation, flocculation in structured vehicle, rheological
            considerations, emulsions ; types, theories, physical stability.
6. Diffusion & Dissolution : [ 6 ]
Definitions, steady state diffusion, procedures and apparatus, dissolution, drug release.
7. Kinetics and drug stability: [ 8 ] 
General considerations and concepts, half-life determination, influence of temperature, light, catalytic species, solvent and other factors, Accelerated stability study, expiration dating.
8. Polymer Science and Applications : [ 4 ] 
Introduction and definitions, types of polymers, pharmaceutical applications, polymers as thickening agents, fabrication technology. 


Pharmaceuticals -I (Physical Pharmaceutics) Practicals
  1. Determination of latent heat, vapour pressure, critical point.

  2. Studies on polymorphs their identification and properties.

  3. Determination of particle size, particle size distribution and surface area using various methods of particle size analysis.

  4. Determination of derived properties of powders like density, porosity, compressibility, angle of repose, etc.

  5. Determination of Surface/Interfacial tension, HLB value and Critical Micelle Concentration of surfactants.

  6. Study of Rheological properties of various types of systems using different viscometers.

  7. Studies of different types of colloids and their properties.

  8. Preparation of various types of suspensions and determination of their sedimentation parameters.

  9. Preparation and stability studies of emulsions.

  10. Determination of half life rate constant and order of reaction.

  11. To study the influence of various factors on the rate of reaction.

  12. Accelerated stability testing, shelf life determination and expiration dating of pharmaceuticals.

  13. Experiment involving tonicity adjustments.

  14. Experiments demonstrating the dissolution of drugs from various formulations.

Books Recommended:
1. Physical Pharmacy by Alfred Martin.
2. Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences
3. Bentley's Pharmaceutics by E A Rawlins
4. Cooper and Gunn's Tutorial Pharmacy 


B.P., 6