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T. Y. B. Sc.
Paper - VI

Unit : 1    Introduction :

        Role of analytical chemistry. Classification of analytical methods-classical and instrumental. Types of 
instrumental analysis. Selecting an analytical method. Neatness and cleanliness. Laboratory operations and practices. Analytical balance. Techniques of weighing, errors. Volumetric glassware cleaning and calibration of
glassware. Sample preparations dissolution and decompositions. Gravimetric techniques. Selecting and handling
of reagents. Laboratory notebooks. Safety in the analytical laboratory.

            Errors and Evaluation :

Definition terms of mean and median. Precision-standard deviation, relative standard deviation. Accuracy
absolute error, relative error. Types of error in experimental data determination (systematic), indeterminate (or random) and gross. Sources of errors and its effects upon the analytical results. Methods for reporting analytical data. 
Statistical evaluation of data indeterminate error, The uses of statistics.

Unit : 2 Acid-Base Titration :

        Construction of titration curves, feasibility of titration of polypro tic acid and mixture of acids, titration of
salts, differential titration of alkalis. Buffer, Buffer level, range and its capacity.

        Theory of Precipitation :

            Particle size of precipitates, impurities in precipitates, purification of precipitates, precipitation from 
homogenous solutions, precipitation tetrameter, The Mohr's method, Fijian's Method construction of precipitation
titration curve, factors influencing the sharpness of end point.

Unit : 3 Potentionmetry :

The scope of potentionmetric titration, type of titration's, acid-base, complex metric, precipitation. Graphical
methods including Grans plot of selecting end point. Deferential Indicator electrodes, glass, membrane, quinhdrone, hydrogen. Principle of PH meter.

        Paleography :

            Principle, electrodes, types of currents, half wave potential llkovik equation, methods of determining 
concentration, application of paleography.

(1) Determination of the instability constant of complex.
(2) Voltametry, Amperometric titration : Apparatus, technique, advantages, disadvantages.

Unit : 4 Colorimetry and Spectrophotometry :

Law of absorbance, visual colorimetric methods spectrophotometric instrumentation, light sources optical
system, the wave length selectors, light sensitive devices, accuracy and error in spectrophotometry, analysis of
mixtures. Flame photometry. Atomic absorption spectrometry principles.

        Redox titration :

            Calculation of potentials at various points on the titration curve, redox indicator, potential requirements for lodometry, lodimetry. Metal redactors.

Unit : 5 Chromatography and ion exchange :

Column chromatography, thin chromatography, paper chromatography instrumentation, evaluation, ion
exchange synthetic material mechanism of exchange, distribution coefficients, application.

        Solvent Extraction :

            Distribution coefficient, distribution ratio, solvent extraction of metals, the extraction process, separation efficiency.

        Complex metric EDTA titration :

Types, Indicator, masking and damasking, construction of the titration curves.

(1) Numerical are compulsory for all units.

Paper - VII

Unit : 1    Chemical Bonding :

              Molecular Orbital Theory :

               Introduction. The L.C.A.O. method, Bonding, Non bonding and antibonding orbital. Grade and upgrade
orbital. (Symmetrical point of view). Bond order. Homo and Hetro nuclear diatomic molecules like. 

               H2, Li2, B2, N2, O2, F2, CO & NO   

               Valence bond theory :

               H2 + ion & H2, comparison of M.O. & V.B. theory, metallic bond (M.O. Approach)

Unit : 2    Valency :

(1)          Variation Method. Secular Equation, M.O. theory stability of H2 ion. V.B. theory H2 molecule. Energy of
              symmetric and antisymmetric states. Classical interaction energy.
(2)          Representation of wave function for SP, SP2, SP3 hybrid orbital, bond angles and bond strengths.
(3)          M.O. treatment of Octahedral Complexes.
(4)          Quantum mechanical representation of Pauli's Exclusion Principle.                      

Unit : 3    Reaction Mechanism of Coordination Compounds :
(1)          Substitution reactions of square planar complexes.
              (i) Reaction of platinum (ii) complexes the trans effect; theories of Trans Effect, use of Trans Effect

              in synthesis and analysis.               
(2)          Substitution reactions in Octahedral complexes. Possible mechanism for legend replacement. reactions,
              legend displacement reaction in Octahedral complexes, acid hydrosis, base hydrolysis, agnation 
(3)          Electron transfer reactions, mechanism of Redox reactions.

Unit : 4   Hard and Soft Acids and Bases (HSAB)

              Classification of acids and bases as hard and soft. Pearson's HSAB concept, acid-base strength and 
              hardness and softness. Symbiosis, theoretical basis of hardness and softness, electro negativity and
              hardness and softness.  

        Organ metallic Chemistry :

                Definition, nomenclature and classification of organ metallic compounds. Preparation, properties, bonding and applications of alkyls and aryls of Li, Al, Hg, Sn and Ti, a brief account of metal-ethylenic complexes and homogeneous hydrogenation, mononuclear carbonyls and the nature of bounding in metal carbonyls.

Unit : 5  Corrosion :

             Introduction, economic aspects of corrosion, difference in corrosion and erosion, types of corrosion, dry or chemical corrosion, wet or electrochemical corrosion, factors affecting chemical corrosion theories of wet corrosion, galvanic corrosion, concentration corrosion, atmospheric corrosion, under water corrosion, under corrosion or soil corrosion, microbiological corrosion, general or uniform corrosion, pitting corrosion, inter granular corrosion, stress corrosion, microbiological corrosion, corrosion fatigue, dezincification, prevention of corrosion.

        Passivity of Metals :

             Introduction, anodic dissolution of metals with formation of readily soluble compounds, chemical and mechanical passivity, electrochemical passivity, theories of passivity, gaseous film theory, oxide film theory or protective layer theory of passivity, adsorption theory.            

Paper - VIII

Unit : I    Chemical Reactivity and Molecular structure :

               Acid Base Properties :

               Proton acids bases, Scales of acidity - basicity. Resonance effects, drawing resonance structures and the conditions for resonance. Effect of change of Hybridization on acidity and basicity. Inductive and electronic effects. Steric effects and Hydrogen bonding Lewis acids and bases, keto - enol T automatism and factors effecting its equilibrium its equilibrium. Acid and base catalyzed mechanism of inter-conversion of the Keto and enol forms of ethylacctoacetate (EAA)

              Spectroscopy :

                  Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.    

                  Proton magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy, nuclear shielding and deshielding, chemical shift and molecular structure, spin-spin splitting and coupling constants, areas of signals, interpretation of PRM spectra of simple organic molecules such as ethyl bromide, ethanol, acetaldehyde, 1,1,2 tribromoethane ethyl acetate, toluene and acetophenone.

              Problems pertaining to the structure elucidation of simple organic compounds using UV, IR and PMR spectroscopic techniques.

Unit - 2   Organ metallic Compounds :

               Organomagnesium compounds : the Grignard reagents formation, structure and chemical reactions.    
               Organozinc compounds : formation and chemical reactions.
               Organ lithium compounds : formation and chemical reactions.

               Organosulphur Compounds :

               Nomenclature, structural features, Methods of formation and chemical reactions of thiols, thioethers, sulphonic acids, supphonamides and sulphaguanidine.  

               Steroids :

               Occurrence, nomenclature, basic skeleton, Diel's hydrocarbon and stereochemistry. Isolation, structure determination and synthesis of cholesterol, Bile acids. Androsterone, Testosterone, Estrone, Progesterone Aldosterone, Biosynthesis of steroids.    

Unit : 3    Electrophillic Aromatic Substitution :

               Introduction, Effect of substiuent groups :

               Determination of orientation; Determination of relative reactivity; classification of sunstituent groups; 
               Orientation in disubstitued benzenes; (orientation and synthesis)
               Mechanism of : Nitration; sulfonation; Friedel crafts alkylation's and acylation; and halogenations; 

               Mechanism of Protonation. Mechanism of electrophlic aromatic substitution (a summery) Mechanism of
               electrophillic aromatic substitution.

               The Two steps :

               Reactivity and Orientation; Theory of reactivity, theory of orientation; Electron release Via resonance.
               Effect of halogen on electrophillic aromatic substitution; Relation to other Carbonation reactions.

               Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons :

               Anthracene and Phenanthrene. Nomenclature of anthracene and phenanthrene derivatives. Structure of anthracene and phenanthrene. Reactions of anthracene and phenanthrens. Preparation of anthracene derivatives by ring closure.         

               Anthraquinones :

               Preparation of Phenanthrene derivatives by ring closure, Carcinogenic hydrocarbons (Arena oxides) Carcinogenic activity and structure (i) 20 - Methyl. Cholanthrene; (ii) 1,2 Benzpyrene. (iii) 1,2 Benzathracene. (iv)  1,2,5,6 Benzanthracene Cancer Chemotherapy.

Unit : 4    Oxidation Reduction :

              (I)    Use of specific reagents and their synthetic application with mechanism.  
                     a.    Aluminum - isoproxide.                         b.    Lithium Aluminum Hydride.
                     c.    Sodium - Borohydrive.                         d.    Aluminum - ter - Butoxide.
                     e.    Selenium dioxide.                                f.    Osmium tetroxide.
                     g.    Lead tata acetate.                             h.    Periodic acid.

               Isoprenoids :

               Classification, General methods of structure termination, Isoprene rule; Constitution of citral; Tarpene. Constitution of camphor and their syntheses study of reactions of  Carotene. (With synthesis) study of reactions of Lycopene.

Unit : 5    Drugs :

               Introduction, some important drugs, sulpha drugs, sulphonamide or antibacterials, discovery of  sulfanilamide (or sulphanilamide, some important derivatives of sulphanilamide (or sulphonamide), mechanism of action of sulpha drugs, arsenicals, atoxyl, (sodium salt of parsanilic acid or p-amino phenyl arsenic acid), antipyretics and analgesics, aspirin, phenacetin (p-ethoxy acetanilide), melubrin and novalgin, antimalarials, paludrine (proguanil), antibiotics, penicillins, synthesis, production of penicillin, chloromycetin (chloramphenicol).

               Dyes :

               Introduction, sensation of colour, color and constitution nomenclature, fibers to be dyed, dyeing, cross dyeing basic operations in dyeing, dye intermediates, classification of dyes, classification of dyes according to their mode of application, acid dyes, basic dyes, direct or substantive dyes, mordant of adjective dyes, pigment dyes solvent or developed dyes, ice colours, sulphur dyes, pigment dyes or solvent or spirit soluble dyes, food dyes, classification, nitroso dyes, nitro dyes, azo dyes, acid azo dyes, methyl, orange, methyl red, orange i, basic azo dyes, direct or substantive azo dyes, mordant azo dyes, stilbene dyes, subclasses of azo dyes, biphenyl methane dyes,triphenymethane dyes, phthaleins xanthenes dyes, thiazole dyes, anthraquinone dyes, method of application, indigoids, application of the dye, sulphur or sulphide dyes, general methods of application of dyes on fiber, methods of dyeing direct dyeing, vat dyeing, mordant dyeing, substantive dyeing, disperse dyeing, formation of dye on the fiber, dyeing with reactive dyes, formation of dye on the fiber, dyeing of wool with acid dyes.        

Paper - IX

Unit : 1    Chemical Cell :  

    Without Transference Chemical cell with Transference, Concentration cell Types : (a) Electrode concentration cell, amalgam concentration cell, gas Concentration cell (b) Electrolyte concentration cell, concentration cell without transference, with transference, Liquid-Liquid Junction potential calculation of the value of E.M.L. elimination of Liquid - Junction potential, numerical. 

Application of E.M.F. measurements Determination of 

    (1) Transport number.
    (2) Degree of hydrolysis of salt.
    (3) Solubility of sparingly soluble salt.
    (4) Activity
    (5) Stability constant of complex.
    (6) Free energy.
    (7) Heat of reaction
    (8) Dissociation constant of week acid
    (9) PH.

Polarization, Electromotive force of polarization, Decomposition Voltage, its measurement, application of discharge potential, Over-Voltage, Hydrogen over-voltages Oxygen Over-Voltage, its measurements, factors affecting Over- Voltage Theories of Over-Voltage.

    (a) Gallstone, Gyring and Laiders theory
    (b) Neutralization of charge or ion discharge.
    (c) Combination of atoms to form molecules (Tafel equation)
    (d) Evolution of the Hydrogen gas, Importance of Over Voltage, numerical.

Unit - 2 Spectroscopy :

    Introduction : electromagnetic radiation, regions of the spectrum, basic features of different spectrometers, statement of the Born Oppenheimer approximation, degree of freedom.

    Rotational Spectrum :

        Diatomic molecules. Energy levels of a rigid rotor (semi-classical principles), selection rules, spectral intensity, distribution using population distribution (Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution) determination of force constant and qualitative relation of force constant and bond energies, effect of anharmonic motion and isotope on the spectrum, idea of vibrational frequencies of different functional groups.

Raman Spectrum : concept of polarizability, pure rotational and pure vibrational Raman spectra of diatomic 
molecules, selection rules.

    Electronic Spectrum :

        Concept of potential energy curve for bounding and ant bounding molecular orbital, qualitative description of selection rules and Franck - Condom principle.

Qualitative description of and n M.O., their energy levels and the respective transitions.

Unit - 3 

    (A)  Thermodynamics :

        Zeroth Law of thermodynamics, absolute temperature scale Nernst heat theorem, third Law of thermodynamics determination of absolute entropy, experimental verification of third Law, entropies of real gases, entropy change in chemical reaction, numerical. Concept of fugacity of gas, fugacity at low pressure, fugacity of a liquid component in a liquid solution, concept of activity, activity coefficient, standard states, numerical.

    (B)  Statistical thermodynamics :

        Types of statistics, Maxwell-Boltzamann statistics, Fermi-Dirac statistics, Evaluation of Lagrange undetermined multipliers, Molecular Partition Function for an ideal gas, Transnational Partition function, Vibration Partition Function; Electronic Partition Function, numerical.

Unit - 4 

    (A)  The Colloidal State :

        Introduction, Types of colloidal system, classification of colloids, True solutions, colloidal solutions and suspension preparation of colloidal solutions.
(a)  Dispersion methods.
(b)  Condensation methods.

Purification of colloidal solution : dialysis, Ultra-filtration, properties of Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic colloidal systems Gels, Importance and application of colloids.

Foams, theory of foam stability, antifoamers, donnam membrane equilibrium and its application : (1) Swelling of
gel. (2) Tanning leather.

    (B)  Macromolecules :

        Macromolecule, Polyethylene, degree of polymerization, classification of polymers, Isotactic polymers, Atactic Polymers, stereo regular polymers, Graft polymers, Polymersation reaction, Nylon, Ethylene or Dacron, Molar masses of polymers Number average molar mass, Determination of molar masses of macro molecules (only 
viscosity method), Hoodwinks equation, Light scattering by macromolecules, Raleigh ratio, Zimm's plots, Diffusion,
Stock-Einstein equation and configurations of macromolecules in solution, Radius of gyration, numerical.

Unit - 5 Electrochemical Industries :

    Introduction, advantages of electrochemical methods, industrial applications of electrolysis, electrolysis of melts, electrode materials, requirements for electrode materials, cathode materials, anode materials, Polaris able and non-Polaris able electrodes, aluminum, raw materials, quantitative requirements, carbon electrodes, manufacture of aluminum, physico-chemical techniques involved, mechanism, purification of bauxite, Bayer's process, serpeck's process, hall's process, electrolytic reduction of alumna, important points, soderberg furnace electrolyser with self baking anodes, electrolytic refining of aluminum, uses, position in India, magnesium, raw materials, preparation of anhydrous MgCl2 from magnetite, preparation of MgO from dolomite, carbo-thermal process, silicon thermal or pidgeon process, uses sodium chlorate, potassium perchlorate, hydrogen peroxide, uses potassium permanganate preparation of K2MnO4, preparation of KMnO4, in acid medium, in neutral medium, uses hydroxylamine, uses, hydrochloric acid.

    Metallic Coatings :

        Introduction, electrode position of metals from solutions, general procedure, coating processes, hot dipping, metal cladding, electrode position or electroplating, applications of electroplating, factors influencing the nature of deposit, preparation of materials for electroplating, factors influencing the nature of deposit, requirements of depositing solution (electrolyte), electrical energy required for electrode position, electroplating of some metals, displacement or immersion plating, impregnated coating or cementation, metal spraying of moralized coatings, Vapour deposition chemical conversion coatings, organic coatings.

Paper - X

Unit - 1 Fermentation :        

    Introduction,  historical, conditions favorable for fermentation, characteristics of enzymes, short account of some fermentation processes, alcoholic beverages, manufacture of beer, formation of wart, fermentation of worth, manufacture of spirits, manufacture of wines, manufacture of vinegar, manufacture of power alcohol, ethyl alcohol from molasses, preparation of wash, distillation, alcohol from waste sulphite liquor, manufacture from starchy materials, manufacture from cellulose materials, manufacture from hydrocarbon gases, importance of power alcohol as a fuel, distillery effluents for agricultural production.

    Pulp And Paper :

        Introduction, manufacture of pulp, sulphite or Kraft pulp, soda pulp, sulphite pulp, rag pulp, beating, refining, filling, sizing and coloring, manufacture of paper, calendaring, uses, ecological problems of Indian pulp and paper industry.

    Sugar :

        Introduction, manufacture of cane sugar, extraction of juice, purification of juice, defection, sulphitation and carbonation, concentration or evaporation, crystallization, separation of crystals, drying, refining, grades, recover of sugar from  molasses, biogases, preparation of celotex, manufacture of sucrose from beet root, testing or estimation of sugar double sulphonation process, double carbonation, sulphonation process.

Unit - 2 Oils, Fats, Waxes and Soaps :

    Introduction, distinction between oils and fats properties, classification, vegetable oils, manufacture of cotton seed oil by expression and solvent extraction, manufacture of soybean oil by solvent extraction, refining of crude vegetable oils, some other vegetable oils, animal oils, animal fats and oils, processing of animal fats and oils, mineral oils, difference between animal, vegetable and mineral oils, hydrocarbon oils, essential oils, isolation of essential oils, unsaponifiable matter in glycosides, waxes, classification of waxes, properties of waxes, some common waxes, quantitative solubility of waxes in cold alcohol qualitative solubility of waxes synthetic oils, fats and waxes, analysis of oils, fats and waxes, saponification value, ester value, elaiden test, aniline point, manufacture of candles, hydro-genation of oils, optimum conditions for the process, the dry process, the wet process, margarine, soap and its manufacture, general consideration in soap making, manufacture of soap, toilet and transparent  in soap metal soaps, other soaps, oil to be used for soaps, cleansing action of soaps, recovery of glycerin from spent lye.

    Detergents :

        Introduction, principal groups of synthetic detergents, classification of surface active agents, anionic detergents, soaps, alkyl sulphates, alkyl aryl sulphonates, alkyl sulphonates, amide sulphonates, miscellaneous compounds, cationic detergents, non-ionic detergents, amphitricha detergents, suds regulators, builders, additives, biodegradability of surfactants, detergents containing enzymes, eco-friendly detergents, zealots, manufacture of shampoos.

Unit - 3 Portland Cement :

    Introduction, other types of cement, high aluminum cement, stag cement, acid resistant cement, super sulphate cement, while cement, coloured cement, sorel's cement, roman cement, pozzolan cement, blended Portland cement, types of Portland cement, cementing material, raw materials, cement rock beneficiation, manufacture, reactions in the kiln, mixing of additives to the cement, important points, setting of cement, function of compounds, properties of cement, Indian standards function of compounds, properties of cement, testing of cement, uses, institute (isi) specifications of cement, testing of cement, uses, physicochemical processes occurring in thermal treatment of raw cement mixture, heat requirements, some definitions, rotary kilns for making cement clinker making, fuel burning devices, clinker coolers, factors affecting quality, economy in cement industry, mortars and concrete, curing of concrete, decay of concrete, corrosion of concrete or cement stone, gypsum, plaster of paris lime, manufacture of lime, properties of lime, setting and hardening of lime.

Unit - 4 Fertilizers :

    Plant nutrients, nutrient function, micronutrients, fertilizer type, need for fertilizers, essential requirements, fertility of the soil, pH value of the soil, classification of fertilizers, straight and mixed fertilizers, sources of fertilizers, natural organic fertilizers, granulation, bulk blending, natural inorganic fertilizers, artificial, fertilizers, nitrogenous fertilizers, ammonium nitrate, important points, ammonium sulphate ammonium sulphate as fertilizer, ammonium sulphate nitrate, urea, raw materials, manufacture, conditions for a good yield, important points, clean technology action of urea as fertilizer, calcium Cyanamid, action of CaCN2 as fertilizer calcium ammonium nitrate, sodium nitrate, ammonium chloride, organic materials, controlled released ammonium chloride, organic materials, controlled released nitrogen, nitrogen solutions, phosphate fertilizers, phosphate rock, normal super phosphate, important point, modification in manufacturing equipment, properties, triple super phosphate, important points, ammonium phosphate, other phosphate, phosphate fixation, potassium fertilizers, NPK fertilizers, mixed fertilizers, compound or complex fertilizers, nomenclature in fertilizer industry, pollution caused by fertilizers, effects of fertilizers.

Unit - 5 Natural Polymers :

    Natural resins, polysaccharides, starch, glycogen, cellulose, preparation of cellulose, sulphite method of making wood cellulose, sulphate method of producing cellulose (wood pulp), important points, recovery of byproducts, processing of cellulose, proteins, composition, classification nature of proteins, structure of proteins, properties and structure, analysis of proteins, conformation of protein molecules, denaturant of proteins.

    Polymer Degradation :

        Introduction, types of degradation, thermal degradation, mechanical degradation, photo degradation, degradation by high energy radiation, degradation by ultrasonic waves, oxidative degradation, ozone oxidation degradation,  oxidative degradation of saturated polymers, oxidation of phenol formaldehyde, antioxidants.

    Polymer Processing :

        Compounding, molding constituents of plastics, initiators and inhibitors, important points, into articles, calendaring casting, thermoforming, foaming reinforcing, other methods, spinning of fibers, mercerization.


Suggested Books : (Analytical)

1. Analytical Chemistry, G.D. Christian, J.Wiley
2. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry, D.A. Skoog, D.M. West and F.J. Holler, W.B. Saunders.
3. Analytical Chemistry - Principles, J.H. Kennedy, W.B. Saunders
4. Analytical Chemistry-Principles and Techniques, L.G. Hargis, Prentice Hall
5. Principles of Instrumental Analysis, D.A.Skoog and J.L. Loary, W.B. Saunders.
6. Principles of Instrumental Analysis, D.A.Skoog, W.B. Saunders.
7. Quantitative Analysis, R.A. Day Jr. and A.L. Underwood, Prentice Hall
8. Environmental Solution Analysis, S.M. Khopkar, Wiley Eastern.
9. Basic Concepts of Analytical Chemistry, S.M. Khopkar, Wiley Eastern.
10. Handbook of Instrumental Techniques for Analytical Chemistry, F.Settle, Prentice Hall.

Suggested Books : (Inorganic)

1. Chemical Bounding, Mark J. Winter, Oxford Chem. Series.
2. Concepts and Problems in inorganic chemistry, M.S. sethi & P.S. Raghavan, Discovery Publ. New Delhi.
3. Textbook of inorganic chem., P.L. Soni, S.Chand & Sons.
4. College Inorganic Chemistry, Part I,II., Himalaya Publishing House.
5. Concise Inorganic Chemistry, J.D.Lee, ELBS
6. Advanced Inorganic Chemistry, Cotton & Wikinsion, Inter science publishers jhon wiley.
7. Modern Approach to Inorganich Chemistry, Bell & Lott, Butterwoth.
8. Basic Inorganic Chemistry, F.A.Cotton & Wilkinsion, Wiley.
9. Valency & Molecular Structure, Cartmell & Fowles, Butterworth.
10. Atomic structute and chemical bond, manas chanda, Tata Mcgraw Hill.
11. Concepts of Models of Inorganic Chemistry, Bdouglas, McDaniel and J.Alexander, Wiley.
12. Modern Aspects of Inorganic Chemistry. H.J. Emeleus & A.G. Sharpe, Low Princed ELBS.
13. Chemistry of P.Block Elements, M.Satake & S.A. Iqbal, Dicovery public.
14. Inorganic Chemistry, Alan G. Sharp, Addisonwesley
15. Inorganic Chemistry, R.T.Sanderson, East.west press
16. Inorganic Chemistry, D.E.Shriver, P.W.Atkins and C.H.Langford.
17. Inorganic Chemistry, W.W. Porterfield, Addision Wesley.
18. Inorganic Chemistry, G.L. Miessler & D.A. Tarr, Prentice Hall.
19. Quantum Chemistry, R.K. Prasad
20. Quantum Chemistry, B.K. Sen.
21. The corrosion and Oxidation of Metals, Evans U.R., Arnold, London.
22. Theory of corrosion and protection of Metals, Tomashov N.D., Macmillan, London.
23. Corrosion and Corrosion control, Uhligh H.H., John wiley, New York.
24. Corrosion Engineering, Fontana M.G., and Greene N.D., McGraw-Hiill, New York. 
25. Corrosion Testing procedures, Champion F.A. Champan and Hall, London.
26. Corrosion, Shreir L.L., Jarman R.A. and Burtein G.T., Butter worth.

Books Suggested (Organic) :

1. Organic Reactions and their mechanirms, P.S. Kalsi, New Age international publishers.
2. Text book of organic chemistry, P.S. Kasi, New Age International Publishers.
3. Organic chemistry Vol. I&II, S.M.Mukherji, S.P. Singh, R.P. Kapoor, New Age International Publishers.
4. Modern Organic Chemistry, S.P. Shukla, G.L. Trivedi, Millenium editor.
5. Elementary Practical organic chemistry Part I,II,III, Arthur I. Vogel. (2nd edition) CBS Publishers & Distributors.
6. Organic chemistry, Morrison and Boyd, Prentice Hall.
7. Organic chemistry, L.G. wade Jr., Prentice Hall
8. Fundamentals of Organic chemistry, solomons, John wiley.
9. Introduction to organic chemistry, Streitwieser, Heathcock and kosover, Macmillan.
10. Basic Principles of spectroscopy, R.Chang, McGraw Hill.
11. Modern Spectroscopy, J.M. Hollas, John Wiley.
12. Synthetic Dyes, Gurdeep R. Chatwal, Himalaya Pub. House.
13. A Textbook of Synthetic Dyes, O.D. Tyagi, M. Yadav, Anmol Pub., New Delhi.

Books Suggested (Physical)

1. Physical Chemistry, G.M.Barrow, International student Edition, McGraw Hill.
2. Physical Chemistry, R.A.Alberty, Wiley Eastern Ltd.
3. The Elements of physical chemistry, P.W. Atkins, Oxford.
4. Physical chemistry though problems, S.K.
5. Elements of Physical chemistry, S.Glasstone & D.Lewis.
6. Physical Chemistry, W.J. Moore.
7. Physical Chemistry, G.M. Barrow
8. Principles of Physical Chemistry, Puri, Sharma, Pathania, Sobhanlal, Nagin chand & Co., Delhi-4.
9. Advance Physical Chemistry, Gurdeep Raj, Goel Publishing house, Merrut.
10. Physical Chemistry - For F.Y.B.Sc., S.Y.B.Sc. and T.Y.B.Sc. Himansu Publications, 464 Hiran Magari sector -11, Udaypur.
11. B.K. Sharma - Ind. Chemistry.
12. Physical Chemistry - Gurdeep Raj.

Books Suggested (Industrial Chemistry) :

1. Industrial Chemistry, B.K. Sharma, Goel Publishing House, Meerut.
2. Industrial Pollution, V.P. Kudesia, Pragati Prakashan, Meerut.
3. Industrial Water Pollution control, w.Wesley Ecke, Jr., McGraw Hill, Int. Edi.

Laboratory Course (Inorganic, Organic, Physical, Analytical Chemistry)


    This syllabus is to be completed by assigning six Laboratory sessions per week, each of three hours. Total
Laboratory work is 540 Hrs/Year (18 Hrs/Week) or 30 weeks. The number of students in the laboratory batch
should not exceed fifteen (15). The medium of instruction will be English in Laboratory Course.


(A) Synthesis and Analysis by and conventional method :

    Preparation of sodium trioxalato ferrate (III) trihydrate, Na3[Fe(C2O4)] 3H2O and determination of Iron in complex.
    Preparation of Nickeldimethylglyoxime, [Ni(DMG)2] and determination of Nickel in complex.
    Preparation of copper tetraamine complex, [Cu(NH3)4] and determination of Copper in complex.
    Preparation of Potassium trioxalato aluminates, K3 [Al(C2O4)3] 3H2O and determination of Aluminum, in complex.

    Preparation : (Only preparation - no determination)

    1. Cis and trans bisoxalato diaqua chromate (III).
    2. Hexathiourea plumbous nitrate.
    3. Magnesium sodium sulphate.
    4. Cuprous chloride.
    5. Penta thiourea dicuprous nitrate.

(B) Qualitative analysis :

    Inorganic mixture should be comprised of six radicals (minimum - Eight mixtures) candidate if required should be guided once for the wrong group and marks must be deducted for wrong group. Maximum of 5 marks can be 
deducted for wrong group. 

    There shall be no deduction of marks for the representation of wrong radical.

(C) Effluent analysis :

    Separation of Zinc and Magnesium on an anion exchanger.

    Water Analysis :

        Find TDS and amount of Ca + Mg / HCO3 + CO3 / Chloride / Sulphate in the given water sample.

(D) Gravimetric and Volumetric :

1. Brass alloy : Zn (Gravimetric) Cu (Volumetric)
2. German Silver : Ni (Gravimetric) Cu (Volumetric)
3. Bronze alloy : Sn (Gravimetric) Cu (Volumetric)

Note : For Volumetric use different method.

Laboratory Techniques :

(A) Steam Distillation :

Naphthalene from its suspension in water Clove oil from cloves, Separation of o-and p-nitrophenols.

(B) Column Chromatography :

Separation to fluoresce in and methylene blue. Separation of leaf pigments from spinach leaves, Resolution of
racemic mixture of ( ) mandelic acid

(C) Qualitative Analysis :

Analysis of an organic mixture containing two components using water, NaHCO3, HCI, NaOH for separation and
preparation of suitable derivatives and distillation.

Separation of two components such as (Minimum 8 Mixtures)

1. Solid - Solid
2. Solid - Liquid.
3. Liquid - Liquid.

Using seminicro method.

(D) Synthesis of Organic Compounds (One stage) :

(a) Acetylation of salicylic acid, aniline, glucose and hydroquinone. Benzoylation of aniline and phenol.
(b) Aliphatic electrophonic substitution. Preparation of iodoform from ethanol and acetone.
(c) Aromatic electrophilic substitution, 
Nitration, Preparation of m-dinitrobenzene, Preparation of p-nitro acetanilide.
Halogenations, Preparation of p-bromoacetanilide, Preparation of 2,4,6 - tribromophenol.
(d) Diazotion / Coupling :
Preparation of methyl orange and methyl red.
(e) Oxidation :
Preparation of benzoic acid from toluene.
(f) Reduction :
Preparation of aniline from nitrobenzene, Preparation of m-nitroaniline from m-dinitrobenzene.

(E) Estimation of Functional Groups :

1. Estimation of OH (alcoholic)
2. Estimation of OH (phenolic)
3. Estimation of azo (-N = N-) groups.
4. Estimation of Nitro groups.

Sterochemical Study of Organic Compounds via Models :

R and S configuration of optical isomers. E, Z configuration of geometrical isomers. Conformational analysis of
cyclohexanes and substituted cyclohexanes.


(1) Determine the amount of XN acid (strong or weak) in the given solution using PH meter. (standardize given alkali solution).
(2) Determine the amount of XN strong Acid + YN weak Acid in the given solution using PH meter. (standardize given alkali solution).
(3) Determine conductometrically the amount of XN strong acid + YN weak acid in the given mixture. (standardize given alkali solution).
(4) Determine potentiometrically the amount of iron (II) in the given ferrous ammonium soluphate solution using 0.1 N KMnO4 / K2Cr2O7 (standardize the given titrant solution).
(5) Determine potentiometrically concentration of given Potassium iodide solution using 0.1 N KMnO4 (standardize
the given titration solution).
(6) Colorimetric estimation of Nitrite. prepare the standard graph and find the concentration of Nitrite in the given unknown solution.
(7) Colorimetric estimation of Nickel. prepare the standard graph and find the concentration of Nitrite in the given
unknown solution.
(8) Determine phosphate concentration in soft drink by colorimetric estimation.
(9) Investigate the formation of complex ions between Fe(III) and thiocyanate ion by Job's method.
(10) Investigate the formation of complex ions between Fe (III) / Salicylic acid system by (a) Job's method (b) Mole ratio method.
(11) Determine the dissociation constant of indicator by spectrophotometer method.
(12) Determination of molecular weight of a non-volatile solute by Rast method/Beckman Freezing point method.
(13) Determination of the apparent degree of dissociation of an electrolyte (e.g., NaCl) in aqueous solution at different concentrations by ebullioscopy.

Experiments In Analytical Chemistry :

(1) To determine Nicotine content in cigarette tobacco.
(2) Separation of Analgesic - drugs by thin layer chromato graphy.
(3) Quantitative determination of inorganic cations Cu2, + Co2+ and Ni2+ in the given mixture by using circular paper Chromato graphy. 
(4) Separation of Dispersed dyestuff by TLC.
(5) To determine the amount of Iron in an ore or in alloy (by solvent extraction).
(6) Separation and estimation of Mg(II) and Fe(II) by solvent extraction method.
(7) Food adulteration and its detection :
1. Adulteration of Vanaspati Ghee
2. Adulteration of Honey
3. Adulteration of Chilly Powder
4. Adulteration of whole Turmeric.

Journal :If Journal is incomplete and not certified by the authority the candidate should not be allowed to appear at the university examination.

Books Suggested (Laboratory Course) :

1. Vogel's Qualitative Inorganic Analysis, revised, Svehla Orient Longman.
2. Vogel's Textbook of Qualitative Inorganic Analysis (revised), J.Bassett, R.C. Denney, G.H. Jeffery and J.Mendham, ELBS.
3. Standard Methods of chemical Analysis, W.W.Scott, The Technical Press.
4. Experimental Inorganic Chemistry, W.G.Palmer, Cambridge.
5. Handbook of Preparative Inorganic chemistry, Vol - I & II, Brauer, Academic Press.
6. Inorganic Synthesis, McGraw Hill.
7. Experimental Organic Chemistry Vol. I & II, P.R. Singh, D.S. Gupta and K.S.Bajpai, Tata McGraw Hill.
8. Laboratory Manual in Organic Chemistry, R.K. Bansal, Wiley Eastern.
9. Vogel's Textbook of Practical Organic Chemistry, B.S. Furniss, A.J. Hannaford, V.Rogers, P.W.G. Smith and
A.R. Tatchell, ELBS.
10. Experiments in  General Chemistry, C.N.R. Rao and U.C. Agarwal, East-West Press.
11. Experiments in Physical Chemistry, R.C. Das and B.Behra, Tata McGraw Hill.
12. Advanced Practical Physical Chemistry, J.B. Yadav, Goel Publishing House.
13. Advanced Experiments Chemistry, Vol I - Physical J.N. Gurtu and R.Kapoor, S.Chand & Co.
14. Selected Experiments in Physical Chemistry, N.G. Mukherjee, J.N. Ghose & Sons.
15. Experiments in Physical Chemistry, J.C. Ghose, Bharati Bhavan.

Pattern of Examination


University Examination : (Chemistry Theory)

There will be five papers of theory at the University examination.

Theory (Written)







 Chemistry - VI

   3 Hours



 Chemistry - VII

   3 Hours



 Chemistry - VIII

   3 Hours



 Chemistry - IX

   3 Hours



 Chemistry - X

   3 Hours




University Paper :

Question Number


Number of Unit for 
the question

Marks per Question


















1 to 5



Question - 1 to 5    To be set from each unit with internal option Each question will have two sub questions (a) and (b), detailed as under :

            (a) Theory Question - 6 marks

            (b) Theory / Problem / Numerical - 6 Marks


Question - 6 Having 10 objective questions. All questions will compulsory. Each will have one mark.

University Examination : (Chemistry Laboratory course) :

Laboratory Course







Chemistry Practical

21 Hours




First Day : 10:00 to 5:30 (Including 30 min. recess)

[A]    Inorganic Quantitative (Alloy) analysis and    7 Hrs.        35 Mrks

[B]    Inorganic Synthesis                                                  15 Mrks


[A]    Inorganic Synthesis with analysis and            7 Hrs.      35 Mrks

[B]    Water analysis or Effluent analysis                              15 Mrks

[C]    Viva-Voce                                                                5 Mrks


Second Day

[A]    Organic separation                          (3 Hrs. 30 min.)     25 Marks

[B]    Organic synthesis

C]    Organic estimation or Steam distillation ](3 Hrs. 30 min.)


          or Column chromatography                                         15 Marks

[D]    Viva-Voce                                                                   5 Marks

Note : Exercise [B] & [C] may be given at 11.00 Hrs. according to the need for the exercise.


Third Day : 10.00 to 5.30 (Including 30 min. recess)

[A]    Inorganic qualitative analysis (3 Hrs. 30 min.)                  25 Marks

[B]    Physical qualitative analysis   (3 Hrs. 30 min.)                  25 Marks

[C]    Viva-Voce                                                                   5 Marks




Standard of passing for the Third Year B.Sc. Examination :

To pass the examination candidate must obtain aggregate 36% of marks in chemistry Theory and also in Laboratory course exercise (Practical) separately.