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BOTANY (Second Year B.Sc.)
(Effective from June-2009)


    The students at second B.Sc. have to select Botany as special subject and they have to study papers viz. Paper-III, IV and V and three practicals based on three corresponding theory papers.

    The course is to by completed by assignment three periods per paper per week for theory and three period per practical per week. The number of students in a practical batch should not exceed twenty.


Pattern of the Examination 


Theory Exam marks


External Internal

Botany Paper - III



3 hrs.

Botany Paper - IV



3 hrs.

Botany Paper - V



3 hrs.

Practical - I (Based on Paper-III)



5 hrs.

Practical - II (Based on Paper-IV)



5 hrs.

Practical - III (Based on Paper-V)



5 hrs.




 Unit  I Akaryota and Prokaryota  ( 18 Leacture ,  14 Marks)


  1. Virus –General Characters, Types and Properties of Viruses.

  2. Cell Structure of Bacteria : Cellwall-Structure and Chemical Composition, Cytoplasmic membrane, Mesosomes, Cytoplasmic inclusions and Vacuoles, Nuclear  material.

  3. Preparation for light microscope examination : Wet mount and Hanging drop technique, fixed stained smear- Gram Staining.

  4. Cyanobacteria : General Characters, Organization of Thallus : Unicellular forms , Coolonial forms: Non-filamentous and Filamentous colonies. Economic Importance of Cyanobacteria.



                        Unit : I Akaryota and Prokaryota

             1.    Wet mount and hanging drop technique.

             2.    Fixed stained smear –Gram Staining


        Dubey H C (2004). Bacteria, Viruses and Fungi Vikas  publishing  House

        Dubey H C (2004), Bacteria, Viruses and Fungi, Vikas Publishing House P Ltd , New delhi

        Pelczar, Chan and Krieg (2004), Microbiology (5th edition), Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Co. Ltd., Delhi.

        Prescott, Harley and Klein, Microbiology (6th edition),Sharma P D (2007), Microbiology (6th edition),

        Patel R J and Patel K R (2000), Experimental Microbiology Vol.-I, Aditya, Amdavad.

        Powar and Daginawala (1997), General Microbiology Vol.I & II, Himalaya Publishing House, Mumbai.

        Saravanan P (2007), Virology, M J P Publishers, Chenna


Unit II Algae   ( 18 Leacture ,  14 Marks)                                                                         


    1.  General characters, Ultra structure of Algae-Eukaryotic cell i.e., Chaamydomonas cell.

    2.  Typical life histories of algae belonging to various divisions including classification (Smith,1958), occurrence, structure,

         reproduction (excluding development):

 Cyanophyta: Nostoc,Chlorophyta: Volvox, Phaeophyta: Ectocarpus,    


    3.  Thallus organization: Colonial, Coenobium and Filamentous.

    4.  Economic importance of Algae: Harmful aspects only.



                            Unit II Algae

                               Classify with reasons (up to family), identify and describe structural peculiarities of Algae mentioned in Theory


                       Cyanophyta: Nostoc

                                    Material: Vegetative structure.

                                    Permanent slide: Thallus, Heterocyst.

                                 Chlorophyta: Volvox

                                    Material: Vegetative structure , daughter colony.

                                    Permanent slide: Thallus, daughter colony, sexual reproduction.

                                 Phaeophyta: Ectocarpus

                                    Material: Veg. structure, asexual reproductive structures- Uni & Pluri-locular sporangia

                                    Permanent slide: Thallus, asexual reproduction- Uni and Pluri-locular sporangia

                                 Rhodophyta: Batrachospermum

                                    Materail: Vegetative and reproductive structure- carposporangia and cystocarp

                                    Permanent slide: Thallus, cystocarp



        Vasishtha B R, Sinha A K and Singh V P (2007), Botany for degree students-Algae (5th edition), S. Chand & Co. Ltd., New Delhi.

        Smith G.M. Cryptogamic Botany Vol. I and II

        Pandey B P (2001), College Botany Vol. I, S. Chand & Co. Ltd., New Delhi.

        Purohit S S and Deo P P (2005), UGC Unified College Botany -First Year , Student edition, Jodhpur.

        Gangulee S.C., Das K.S., Dutta C.D. & Kar (1985), College Botany Vol. I, II & III , New Central Book Agency, Kolkata Pandey/ S

        N, Misra S P, Mukharjee and Trivedi P S (2003) A Text Book of Botany Vol.I& II, Vikas Publ. H. P L, N. Delhi. Kumar & Bendre        

        Practical Botany Vol. I & II

        Ragland Annie (2000), Fundamentals of Botany Vol. I, Saras Publication, Kanyakumari.


 Unit III Fungi and Plant Pathology  ( 18 Leacture ,  14 Marks)                                       


    1.   General characters, Modes of life, Thallus organization: Unicelluar, Filamentous- aseptate and septate mycelia.

    2.   Typical life histories of fungi belonging to various divisions including Classification (G C Ainsworth, 1973), occurrence, structure,

          reproduction (excluding development):  Ascomycetes: Erysiphae,  Basidiomycetes: Agaricus

    3.   Classification of plant diseases on the basis of nature of the causal agent and occurrence.

    4.   General symptoms, causal organism, disease cycle and control measures of following Plant diseases:

    1.  White rust of Crucifer, 2. Black rust of Wheat and 3. Early blight of Potato



                                  Unit III Fungi and Plant Pathology

                                   Classify with reasons (up to family), identify and describe structural peculiarities of Fungi mentioned in

                                   Theory syllabus.

                            Ascomycetes: Erysiphae

                                       Material: Vegetative structure, reproductive body-cleistothecium

                                   Permanent slide: Mycelium, reproductive structures- cleistothecium

                                  Basidiomycetes: Agaricus

                                       Material: reproductive fruiting bodies

                                       Permanent slide: reproductive structure, L,S. and T.S. of gills

                                   Plant diseases: Study through Fresh/Preserved material and Permanent slide

                                       White rust of Crucifer- reproductive structure-conidia

                                       Black rust of Wheat- reproductive structures-Telutospores, Uredospores

                                       Early blight of Potato- reproductive structure-conidia



        Vasishtha B R and Sinha A K (2002), Botany for degree students-Fungi (5th edition), S. Chand & Co. Ltd., New Delhi

        Mehrotra R S and Aggarwal A (1984), Plant Pathology (2nd edition), Tata McGraw-Hill P L , N Delhi

        Sharma P D (2003), Plant Pathology ( 2003)Rastogi Publications, Meerut

        Sharma P D (2003), The Fungi (2nd edition), Rastogi Publications, Meerut.

        Sharma O P (2002), Text Book of Fungi (9th edition), Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Co Ltd.,Delhi

        Dubey H.C. (2005), An Introduction to Fungi, (3rd edition), Vikas Publishing House P. Ltd.,New Delhi

        Sundra Rajan S (2001), Introduction to Fungi, (1st edition), Anmol Publications P. Ltd., New Delhi.

        Swanton E W (2002), Fungi (), Surbhi Publications, Jaipur

        Alexopoulos C.J., Mims C W and Blackwell M (2002)Introductory Mycology (3rd edition), John Wiley & Sons, New York.

        Sumbali Geeta (2005), The Fungi ,Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi.

        Singh R S (     ), Plant diseases (4th edition),

        Pandey B P ( 2002), Botany B Sc I, S Chand & Co L, New Delhi

        Agrios G N (2004) Plant pathology (4th edition) Academic Press,New delhi


Unit IV Bryophyta and Pteridophyta   ( 18 Leacture ,  14 Marks)       


  1. General characters of Bryophyta

  2. Typical life history of Hepaticopsida: Marchantia - Classification (Proskauer, 1957), occurrence, external and internal structure of thallus, reproduction excluding evelopment.

  3. General characters of Pteridophyta

  4. Typical life histories of following types including classification (Smith, 1955), occurrence, external and internal structure of plant body and reproduction (excluding development).

            Lycophyta: Selaginella

            Arthrophyta: Equisetum



                                   Unit IV Bryophyta and Pteridophyta

                                             Classify with reasons (up to family), identify and describe structural peculiarities of Bryophyte

                                    and Pteridophytes  mentioned in Theory syllabus.

                                          Bryophyta: Marchantia

                                         Material: Thallus, reproduction-Gemma cup, Antheridiophore , Archegoniophore,Sporophyte.

                                         Permanent slide: Thallus (WM), T.S. of thallus, reproduction: L. S. of Gemma cup,Gemmae

                                        (WM), L. S. of Antheridiophore, L. S. of Archegoniophore, L. S. of  Sporophyte.

                                          Pteridophyta: Selaginella

                                        Material: Plant body (Veg organs -root, stem, rhizophoe, leaf), reproduction- cone/strobilus.

                                        Permanent slide: Plant body (WM), T.S. of root, T.S. of stem, T.S. of  rhizophore,

                                        leaf (WM), reproduction: L. S. of cone, Megaspore (WM), Microspore (WM).

                                          Pteridophyta: Equisetum

                                        Material: Plant body (Veg. organs - stem, scaly leaves), reproduction- cone/ strobilus.

                                        Permanent slide: Plant body (WM), T. S. of stem, scaly leaves (WM), reproduction: L. S. of

                                        cone, T. S. of cone, Spores (WM).



        Vasishtha B R, Sinha A K and Adarsh kumar (2003), Botany for degree students-Bryophyta (9th edition), S. Chand & Co.

        Ltd., New Delhi

        Vasishtha P C, (2002), Botany for degree students-Pteridophyta (5th edition), S. Chand & Co. Ltd., New Delhi

        Vasishtha B R, Sinha A K and Anil kumar (2005), Botany for degree students- Pteridophyta (5th edition), S. Chand &

        Co. Ltd., New Delhi

        A V S S Sambamurty (2005), A text book of Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and Paleobotany (        ),

        Parihar N.S. (       ), Pteridophyta


Unit V Palaeobotany and Gymnosperm  ( 18 Leacture ,  14 Marks)          


  1. Definition of Fossil, Formation of Fossils, Geological Time-scale

  2. Fossil Pteridophytes:

        Lepidodendron, Lepidostrobus, Lepidocarpon, Caaamttes stem, Caaamostachys

   3.  General characters of Gymnosperms

   4.  Typical life history of Pinus including Classification (Taylor, 1981), morphology, anatomy and reproduction (excluding




                                      Unit V Palaeobotany and Gymnosperm

                                      Classify with reasons (up to family), identify and describe structural peculiarities of Fossil Pteridophytes

                                      and Gymnosperm mentioned in Theory syllabus.

                                           Palaeobotany: Fossil Pteridophytes

                                         Permanent slides: Lepidodendron, Lepidostrobus, Lepidocarpon, Caaamttes stem,Caaamostachys

                                         Specimens: Lepidodendron, Caaamttes stem.

                                           Gymnosperm: Pinus

                                         Material: Vegetative organs-leaves (needles), reproductive structures- male cone,female cone,        

                                         Microspores (pollengrains).

                                         Permanent slide: Sections of stem, T.S. of leaf, reproduction: L. S. of male cone, T. S.of ovule,

                                         Microspores/Pollen grains (WM).



        A V S S Sambamurty (2005), A text book of Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and Paleobotany,

        Marie C Stopes (1984), Ancient Plants,

        Bhatnagar S P and Moitra Alok (2006)Gymnosperms, New Age International Publishers, New Delhi.

        Vashishta P.C. (2005) Gymnosperms, S Chand & Co L, New Delhi

        Stewart W N and Rothwell G W (2005) Paleobotany and the evolution of Plants (2nd edition), Cambridge University

        Stopes M C (2004), Fossil Plants () Srishti Book Distributors, New Delhi




Unit I  Plant  Anatomy  ( 18 Leacture ,  14 Marks)                                    


    1.   Histogen theory, Tunica corpus theory. Periderm- Definition, structure and functions. Lenticel- Definition, structure and


    2.  Mechanical Tissue System-Distribution in herbaceous stem i.e., I-girdle e.g., Sunflower stem, Distribution in leaves e.g.,

         Eucalyptus and Pancratium and square stem e.g., Nyctantthus stem and Zea mays prop root.

    3.  Anamolous Secondary Growth:

         Stem: Salvadora, Bignonia, Root: Tinospora, Daucus carota

    4.  Leaf fall and wound healing.



                                  Unit I Plant anatomy

                                Permanent slide: Shoot apex, Root apex.

                                Permanent slide: Periderm, Lenticel.

                                Material: Pneumatophores of Av/cenia/Rhizophora.

                                Material: Sunflower stem, Eucalyptus leaf, Pancratium leaf, Nyctanthusstem, Maize prop root.

                                Permanent slide: Sunflower stem, Eucalyptus leaf, Pancratium leaf, Nyctanthus stem, Maize roproot.

                                Material: Salvadora Stem, Bignonia Stem, Tinospora Root, Daucus carota Root.

                                Permanent slide: Salvadora Stem, Bignonia Stem, Tinospora Root, Daucus carota Root.

                                Permanent slide: Abscission, Tylosis.



        Singh V ,Pande P C and Jain D K (1998) Anatomy of Seed Plants , Rastogi Publications, Meerut

        Tayal M S (1996), Plant Anatomy, Rastogi Publications, Meerut

        E John Jothi Prakash (2005), A text book of Plant Anatomy ,

        Pandey B P (1997), Plant Anatomy , S Chand & Sons Co Ltd, NewDelhi.

        Esau Katherine, Plant Anatomy (2nd edition)

        Chandurkar P J , Plant Anatomy (4th edition)


Unit II Morphology and Taxonomy Angiosperms  ( 18 Leacture ,  14 Marks)                        


    1.  Inflorescence: Hypanthodium, Cyathium, Verticillaster, Capitulum.

    2.  Studies of Angiosperm families:

        Distinguishing characters and classification up to family with reasons as per Bentham and Hooker's (1862-80) system of        

        classification of the following families including floral formula, floral diagram and botanical names of economically important any

        five plants: Dicotyledons:   Polypetalae: Cruciferae (Brassicaceae), Zygophyllaceae, Myrtaceae.

                                             Gamopetalae: Rubiaceae, Apocynaceae, Bignoniaceae.

                                             Monochlamidae: Chenopodiaceae, Moraceae.

                     Monocotyledons: Liliaceae, Palmae (Arecaceae).



                                  Unit II Morphology and Taxonomy of Angiosperms

                                  1.  Inflorescence: Hypanthodium: Ficus sps., Cyathium: Euphorbia sps., Verticillaster: Ocimumsps.,

                                      Capitulum: Helianthes sps. In addition to locally available plants, the following plants may be used for

                                      the study of the Families:

                                  2.  Cruciferae (Brassicaceae): Mustard, Mulo.

                                  3.  Zygophyllaceae: Bethu Gokhru.

                                  4.  Myrtaceae: Bottle brush, Nilgiri, Jamboo.

                                  5.  Rubiaceae: Ixora, Hemelia.

                                  6.  Apocynaceae: Barmasi, Pili/Lal Karen.

                                  7.  Bignoniaceae: Pili limdi/Vasant, Top-gola (Kigeaaia), Tecoma.

                                  8.  Chenopodiaceae: Chil.

                                  9.  Moraceae: Setur.

                                 10. Liliaceae: Dungro, Satavari.

                                 11. Palmae (Arecaceae): Shivjata.


        Singh V and Jain D K (2006), Taxonomy of Angiosperms (2nd edition),

        Datta S C (2003), Systematic Botany, New Age International L Publishers, N Delhi

        Pandey B.P.(2004) Text Book Of Botany - Angiosperms, S Chand & C L,

        Singh V Pande P C and Jain D K (2003) Taxonomy of Angiosperm ,Rastogi

        Sugbramanyam N.S.(1999) Modern Plant Taxonomy, Vikas publishing House.

        Lawrence H M (1951) Taxonomy of Vascular Plants, Oxford Publication.

        Sambamurty A V S S (2005) Taxonomy of Angiosperms, I K International P L, New Delhi

        Pandey B.P. (2005) Taxonomy of Angiosperms, S Chand

        A.S. Foster & E.M. Gifford Comparative Morphology of Vascular Plants

        K.R. Sporne The Morphology of Vascular Plants

        R.N. Sutaria A Text Book of Systematic Botany

        Y.D. Tyagi & S.Kshetrapal An Introduction to Taxonomy of Angiosperms

        P.C. Vashishta Taxonomy of Angiosperms   


Unit III  Plant Resources and Human Welfare  ( 18 Leacture ,  14 Marks)     

Origin, history, cultivation, chemical constituents and economic importance of the following pants:

    1.  Food Plants: Cereals: Wheat, Rice.

                   Pulses: Pigeon pea, Chick pea. Oil seeds: Ground nut, Mustard.

    2.  Fibres: Cotton, Jute.

    3.  Medicinal Plants:

                  Root: Ashwagandha, Underground stem: Turmeric, Leaf: Ardusi, Fruit: Amla, Seed: Isabgul

    4.  Dyes: Henna, Kesudo

                  Wood: Timber: Teak. Fire wood: Baval.



                               Unit III Plant resources and human welfare

                                Cereals: Wheat, Rice.   Pulses: Pigeon pea, Chick pea. Oil seeds: Ground nut, Mustard.   Fibres: Cotton,

                                Jute. Root: Ashwagandha, Underground stem: Turmeric, Leaf: Ardusi, Fruit: Amla, Seed: Isabgul Dyes:

                                Henna, Kesudo Timber: Teak. Fire wood: Baval.   



        Kochhar S L (    ), Economic Botany in the Tropics (2nd edition),

        Verma V (    ), A Text Book of Economic Botany ( edition),

        Bendre and Kumar (    ), Economic Botany (4th edition),


Unit IV Plant Breeding and Hotriculture  ( 18 Leacture ,  14 Marks)            


    1.  Objectives and activities of Plant Breeding. History of Plant Breeding in India.

    2.  Hybridization procedure: Emasculation, Bagging, Tagging and Pollination procedure.

    3.  Artificial Vegetative Reproduction: Cutting, Layering, Grafting, Budding, Potting and Sexual Reproduction: Apomixis-apospory

         and  apogamy, Significance of Apomixis.

    4.  Selection in Self-pollinated crops: The Pure-line selection. Hybridization in Self-pollinated crops: Pedigree method and Bulk




                               Unit IV Plant Breeding

                              Preparation of male flowers for hybridization.

                              Preparation of female flowers for hybridization.

                              Describe the horticulture techniques: Cutting, Layering, Grafting, Budding, Potting and re-potting.



        Chopra V L ( 2000), Plant Breeding (2nd edition), Oxford & IBH Publishing P Ltd New Delhi.

        Chaudhari H K (1997), Elementary Principles of Plant Breeding (2nd edition), Oxford & IBH Publishing P Ltd New Delhi.

        Sadhu M K (1996), Plant Propagation , New Age International Publishers, New Delhi.

        Gupta P K (2004), Plant Breeding, Plant Propagation and Bio technology, Rastogi Publications, Meerut.

        Singh B D (2005) Plant Breeding, Principles and Methods, Kalyani Publishers, Ludhiana

        Gupta S K (2005), Practical Plant Breeding, Agrobios (India), Jodhpur

        Vijendra Das L D (1998), Plant Breeding, New Age International Publishers, New Delhi.

        Agrawal Ratan Lal (2002), Fundamentals of Plant Breeding & Hybrid Seed Production, Oxford & IBH Publishing P Ltd New Delhi.

        Shukla R S and Chandel P S (2004), Cytogenetics, Evolution and Plant Breeding, S Chand & Co Ltd, New Delhi


Unit V Pharmacognosy   ( 18 Leacture ,  14 Marks)                             


    1.  Introduction to Pharmacognosy: Definition, history and scope of Phrmacognosy.

    2.  Sources and classification of drugs: Natural sources: Higher plants, Microbes, Marine and Mineral sources. Classification:

        Alphabetical, Morphological, Taxonomical, Chemical and Pharmacological.

    3.  Alkaloids:  Introduction, properties, chemical tests, classification, Therapeutic effect and Pharmaceutical applications, Role of

         alkaloids in Plants.

    4.  Pharmacognostical scheme for studying a drug. Systematic Pharmacognostic study of the following plants containing alkaloids:

        Sarpagandha (root), Dudh kado/Indrajav (stem bark), Barmasi (leaf/whole plant) and Ephedra (stem).



                               Unit V Pharmacognosy

                               Pharmacognostic study of the following plants containing alkaloids:

                                    1.  Sarpagandha (root),

                                    2.  Dudh kado/Indrajav (stem bark),

                                    3.  Barmasi (leaf/whole plant) and

                                    4.  Ephedra (stem).


        Shah C S and Qadry J S (2005), A Text Book Of Pharmacognosy, B S Shah Prakashan, Amdavad.

        Mohammed Ali (2008), Text Book Of Pharmacognosy (2nd edition), CBS Publishers & Distributors, New Delhi.

        Handa S S and Kapoor V K (2008), Text Book Of Pharmacognosy (5th edition), Vallabh Prakashan, New Delhi.

        Rangari V D (2004), Pharmacognosy & Phytochemistry, Career Publications, Nashik.

        Ansari S H (2006), Essentials of Pharmacognosy, Birla Publications Pvt. Ltd., Delhi.

        Kokate C K, Purohit A P and Gokhale S B (2008), Pharmacognosy (42nd edition), Nirali Prakashan, Pune.

        Khandelwal K R (2008), Practical Pharmacognosy - Techniques & Experiments (19th edition), Nirali Prakashan, Pune.

        Kokate C K (2005), Practical Pharmacognosy (4th edition), Vallabh Prakashan, New Delhi



Unit I Bio-Chemestry  ( 18 Leacture ,  14 Marks)                         


    1.  Carbohydrates: Introduction, definition and classification.

         Monosaccharides: Physical properties of Monosaccharide, structure of Glucose and Fructose. Disaccharides: Occurrence,    

         structure and properties of Maltose and Sucrose. Polysaccharides: Occurrence, structure and properties of Starch.

    2.  Lipids: Definition, alcohols, fatty acids: saturated and unsaturated. Classification of lipids: Simple, Compound and Derived    


    3.  Simple lipids-Triglycerides and Wax.

    4.  Proteins: Structure, electro-chemical properties and classification of Amino acids [on the basis of composition of the side

        chain], peptide bond, formation of dipeptide and polypeptide molecule, general properties and structural level of organization

        of Proteins.



                                 Unit I Bio-chemistry

                                   Tests for detection of Carbohydrates: The following tests are to be performed to detect the nature of

                                   carbohydrates  available in the supplied sample.

                                        1.  Molisch's test, 2. Benedict's test, 3. Barfoed's test, 4. Seliwanoffs test, 5. Fehling'e test,

                                        6.  Iodine test, 7. Cobalt chloride test and 8. Osazone test.



        Lehnigar A C (       ), Biochemistry

        Jain J.L., Fundamentals in Biochemistry,

        Deb A C (2008), Fundamentals of Biochemistry (9th edition),

        Satyanarayana U (1999), Biochemistry (   edition),

        Rama Rao A V S S () Text Book of Biochemistry (5th edition),

        Verma S K and Verma Mohit (    ), Plant Physiology, Biochemistry and Biotechnology (       ),

        A.C Lehnigar Biochemistry

        J.L Jain. Fundamentals in Biochemestry


Unit II Plant Physiology ( 18 Leacture ,  14 Marks)                    


    1.  Solutions: Types: True, colloidal and suspension. Colloidal systems: Phases, properties: Tyndall effect, Brownian movement,

         Filtration, Adsorption, Electrical properties, Flocculation and Precipitation.

    2.  Absorption of water by land plants: Organ of water absorption and path of water movement through root, Factors affecting

         absorption of water : External and Internal factors.

    3.  Ascent of sap: Definition, Mechanism of Ascent of sap: Vital-force theories, Root-pressure theory, Cohesion-tension theory.

         Transpiration: Guttation, Definition of Transpiration, types of transpiration, structure of stomata, stomatal mechanism of

         opening and closing: Photosynthesis in guard cells, Starch-sugar hypothesis, Moder


Unit III Plant Physiology  ( 18 Leacture ,  14 Marks)                  


    1.   Photoperiodism: Definition, critical day length and types of plants [i.e., SDPs, LDPs and Day neutral Plants] and importance of

          both dark and light periods.

    2.   Florigen concept and Vernalization.

    3.   Seed Dormancy: Definition, causes of seed dormancy and measures to break seed dormancy.   

    4.   Physiological role of Phytohormones i.e., Auxins, Giberellins, Cytokinins, Abscisic acid and Ethylene.



                                   Unit II and III Plant Physiology

                                The following Physiological experiments are to be performed by the students:

                                    1.  To determine Isoelectric point of Casein (Protein).

                                    2.  To separate Starch and Salt by Dialysis.

                                    3.  To study the property of Mechanical and Electrical adsorption of colloids.

                                    4.  To demonstrate the phenomenon of Ascent of sap.

                                    5.  To demonstrate unequal transpiration from the leaf surfaces using Cobalt chloride paper.

                                    6.  To determine the amount of water absorbed and transpired by a plant.

                               The following Physiological experiments are to be demonstrated to the students:

                                    1.  Demonstration of Path of water through xylem by Ringing experiment.

                                    2.  Demonstration of transpiration by Bell-jar method.

                                    3.  Demonstration of continuity of air space in the leaf.

                                    4.  Demonstration the rate of transpiration between upper and lower epidermis of leaf using Garreau's


                                    5.  Demonstration of rate of transpiration using Ganong's potometer/Farmer's potometer.



        Delvin R.M., Plant Physiology

        Gill P S (    ), Plant Physiology (1st edition)

        Mukherji S and Ghosh A K (    ), Plant Physiology (1st edition)

        Ross Salisbury (      ), Plant Physiology (4th edition)

        Srivastava H S (2004), Plant Physiology (2nd edition)

        Sundara Rajan S (     ), Plant Physiology (   edition),

        Sornathai Annie, Rajakumar K, Jayakumar M and Rajarathinam K (   ), Plant Physiology (   edition),

        Verma S K and Verma Mohit (   ), Plant Physiology, Biochemistry and Biotechnology (       ),

        Verma V (    ), A Text Book of Plant Physiology (    ), Emkay Publication, New Delhi.

        Sundara Rajan S (2001), Practical Manual of Plant Ecology and Plant Physiology (1st edition),

        Jain V.K., Fundamentals of Plant Physiology Pandey

        S.N. and B.K. Sinha, Plant Physiology Verma

        P.S. and P.K. Agarwal, Plant Physiology


Unit IV  Plant Ecology  ( 18 Leacture ,  14 Marks)                             


  1. Community Ecology: Definition, characteristics of a community, structure. Characters used in community structure: Analytical- Quantitative and Synthetic characters.

  2. Methods of study of communities: Floristic, Physiognomic and Phytosociological methods.

  3. Ecological adaptations: External and internal features of Mesophytes and Halophytes (Mangroves)

  4. Soil: Importance, Definition, formation of soil, factors affecting soil formation and soil profile, soil texture and soil water.



                                   Unit IV Plant Ecology

                                    1.   To determine the minimum size of Quadrat (Sampling unit) by species area curve method to study the

                                          grassland  communities.

                                    2.   To determine the minimum number of Quadrat (Sampling unit) to be laid down in the field to study the

                                          grassland communities.

                                    3.   To Determine the Frequency of any five plants of Grassland communities using Quadrat, then

                                          distribute them among Raunkiaer's frequency classes. Compare with the Normal frequency diagram

                                          using graph paper.

                                    4.   To determine the abundance of any five plant species using quadrat of any size (area) to study the

                                          grassland communities.

                                    5.   To determine the density of any five plant species using quadrat of unit size (area) to study the

                                          grassland communities.

                                    6.   Ecological adaptations-morphological and anatomical studies of following plants-parts: Sunflower

                                          stem and leaf, Avicennia/Rhizophora leaf and pneumatophore.

                                    7.   To determine water holding capacity of soil samples.

                                          Mechanical separation of soil sample to study the percentage of different particles (contents) of soil




        Shukla R S and Chandel P S (    ), Plant Ecology (   ),

        Sharma P D (2006), Ecology and Environment (7th edition)

        Verma P S and Agarwal V K (2006), Cell Biology, Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution and Ecology (     ),

        Odum E P (      ), Fundamentals of Ecology (       ), Natraj Publishers, Dehra Dun

        Santra S C (     ), Environmental Science (       ), New Central Book Agency (P) Ltd., Kolkata.

        Ambasht R.S. , A Text Book of Plant Ecology

        Kormondy E.J., Concept of Ecology

        Stokin D.B. & E.A. Keller Environmental Studies : The Earth as a Plant

        Mishra K.C., Manual of Plant Ecology Kumar

        H.O., Modern Concept of Ecology Dauvenmire

        R.F., Plant & Environment Dauvenmire

        R.F., Plant Communities


Unit V Genetics and Bio-Statstics  ( 18 Leacture ,  14 Marks)                        


    1.   Mendelian principles- Mendel's selection of the experimental plant, Monohybridization and monohybrid ratio, law of

          segregation, law of dominance, Dihybridization and dihybrid ratio, law of independent assortment, back cross and test cross.

    2.   Gene interaction: Inter-allelic: Incomplete dominance and Co-dominance Non-allelic: Duplicate recessive genes (9:7) and

          Duplicate dominant genes (15:1), Epistasis: Dominant epistasis (12:3:1) and Recessive epistasis (9:3:4)

    3.   Bio-statistics: Aims and Limitations of Statistics.

         Classification and Tabulation of Data: Aims and Types of Classification, Types of Tabulation.

    4.   Frequency Distribution, Diagrammatic and Graphical representations. Measures of Central
         Tendency: Mean, Median and Mode.



                                   Unit V Genetics and Bio-statistics

                                   •    Solve and conclude the genetical problems on Monohybridization, Dihybridization, Back cross and Test

                                         cross, Duplicate recessive genes, Duplicate dominant genes, Dominant and Recessive epistasis.

                                   •    Solve and conclude the statistical problems on Frequency Distribution, Mean, Median and Mode.



        Sambamurty (   ), Genetics (2nd edition),

        Rastogi Veer Bala (   ) A Text Book of Genetics (9th edition)

        Gupta P K (2009 ), Genetics (3rd edition),

        Gupta P K (2007 ), Genetics-classical to modern (1st edition)

        Chandel S R S (2003), A Hand book of Bio-statistics, Achal Prakashan Mandir, Kanpur.

PRACTICAL - I (Based on Paper - III)


Instruction: Students are requested to follow instructions given by the examiners.


1.   Identify and classify giving suitable reasons (up to family) the specimens           06

      A and B.

2.   Identify and describe the structural peculiarities observed in specimens             06

      C and D.

3.    Expose the pathogen from the specimen E. Draw a labeled diagram of               04

      observed structure under microscope and show your preparation to the examiner.

4.    Make temporary slide of the reproductive organ from the specimen F and          03

      show your preparation to the examiner.

5.   Proceed to perform Gram positive / Gram negative staining from sample              04

      G. Write principle of staining technique. Show your preparation to the examiner.


      Perform Bacterial motility/Protozoan motility of the given sample G by hanging

      drop method.

6.   (A) Classify (without reasons) and Comment upon fossil specimen/slide H.           03

      (B)Identify and describe peculiarities seen in slides I, and J                              04                                                         

     7.    Journal and viva-voce.                                                                              05


PRACTICAL - II (Based on Paper - IV)

 Instruction: Students are requested to follow instructions given by the examiners.

    1.   Make a temporary stained preparation of specimen A for Mechanical                     04
    tissue. Draw a labeled diagram and show your slide to the examiner.


    Make a temporary stained preparation of specimen A for Secondary growth.

    Draw a labeled diagram and show your slide to the examiner.

    2.   Refer the specimens B and C to their respective families giving reasons.                08

          Draw the labeled diagrams, and give their floral formula and floral diagram.

    3.   Identify and give scientific name, family and economical importance of                  06

         specimens D and E.

    4.   Prepare male and female flowers for hybridization of given specimen F.                  03


    Perform_____________ Horticulture experiment F assigned to you, and

    explain your result to the examiner.

    5.   Refer the specimen G for its Pharmacognostic study and perform chemical              04

          tests for alkaloids. Show your results to the


    6.   1. Comment upon the specimen H for its morphological peculiarities.                      02

          2. Identify and describe the anatomical structure in slide I.                                 02

    7.   Journal and Herbarium.                                                                                  07


PRACTICAL - III (Based on Paper - V)


Instruction: Students are requested to follow instructions given by the examiners.


    1.   Find out the unknown substance(s) from the given sample A and prepare               05

          the molecular structure of the substance(s).

    2.   Perform the Physiological experiment assigned to you. Tabulate your                     05

          observations and show the result to the examiner.

    3.   Determine Minimum size of the quadrat /Minimum number of quadrat for                 04

          given area./ Calculate Frequency /Abundance

          /Density of any five plant species of given area. Tabulate your observations

          and show the result to the examiner.

    4.   Make temporary slide from the specimen B and write its external and                     03

          internal ecological adaptive peculiarities. Show

          your result to the examiner.

    5.   Proceed to determine water holding capacity from soil sample C. Tabulate              04

          your observations and show the result to the examiner.


          Perform mechanical separation of soil sample C to study the percentage of different

          contents of the given soil sample. Tabulate your observations and show the result

          to the examiner.

    6.   Describe briefly the Physiological processes demonstrated by given                        03

          experiment D.

    7.   Solve and conclude the following genetical problem.                                            06


          Solve and conclude the following statistical problem.

    8.   Journal and viva-voce   05                                                                              05