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U.G.C. Curriculum of the M.Sc. Part-II [Zoology]
[In force from June - 2005]  



1.    There will be three theory papers at M.Sc. Part-I and three theory papers at M.Sc. Part-II

2.    There will be practical at M.Sc. Part-I and II based on each theory paper. Practical exercise depends 

       on theory syllabus and local available facilities.

3.    The students are expected to study one special paper at Part-II

4.    Candidate will be examined in theory papers and practicals to make total 450 marks at the end of 

       the year.  

5.    Each theory paper examination will be of three hrs duration

6.    Each practical examination will be 5 hrs duration

7.    There shall be at least one Zoological excursion tour every year. It will pertain different Zoological 
       region of the country, fisheries center, research institutes, museum etc. Zoological excursion is very
       important for the study of animals in their natural habitats. The students are expected to submit tour
       report and small dissertation work during their practical examination.

8.    The students shall be required to produce any two items of a,b,c,d as given below at the time of
       practical examination.

       a)    Laboratory journal and small scientific script should be duly signed by the teacher concern and
              head of dept.    

       b)    Hand prepared charts / models / slides etc.

       c)    Preserved animals collected during local excursion

       d)   Each candidate submits small preparatory scientific scrolls; if so he has not to submit any other



M.Sc. Part - II


   There will be three papers in theory and three practical in the university examination. The pattern will be as follows.




Paper - IV

3 Hours


Paper - V

3 Hours


Paper - VI

3 Hours





Practical - Each practical based on Theory papers.





Paper - IV

5 Hours


Paper - V

5 Hours


Paper - VI

5 Hours







Unit - 1    Origin of Chordates :

1.1    Concepts of Protochordata

1.2    The nature of Vertebrate morphology

         1.2.1    Definition, scope and relation to the other discipliners

         1.2.2    Importance of the study of Vertebrate morphology


Unit - 2    Origin and Classification of Vertebrates :

2.1    Vertebrate integuments & its derivatives

         2.1.1    Development, general structure & function of skin & its derivatives.

         2.1.2    Glands, scales, horns, claws, nails, hooks, feathers & hairs.


Unit - 3    General plans of Circulation in various groups :

3.1    Blood

3.2    Evolution of heart

3.3    Evolution of aortic arches and portal systems

         Respiratory system :

3.4    Characters of Respiratory tissue

3.5    Internal & External Respiration

3.6    Comparative account of Respiratory organ


Unit - 4    Skeletal System :

4.1    Fern, function, body size and Skeletal elements of the body

4.2    Comparative account of jaw suspensorium, vertebral column

4.3    Limbs and grilles

4.4    Evolution of urinogenital system in Vertebrate series


Unit - 5    Sense Organ :

5.1    Simple receptors

5.2    Organs of olfaction & taste

5.3    Lateral line system 

5.4    Electro reception

         Nervous System :

5.5    Comparative anatomy of the brain relation to its function

5.6    Comparative anatomy of spinal cord

5.7    Nerves-Cranial, peripheral and autonomous nervous system


References :

1.    Alexander, R.M. The Chordata. Cambridge University Press, London.

2.    Barrington, E.J.W. The Biology of Hemichordate and Protectorate. Oliver and Boyd, Edinbourgh.    

3.    Kingsley, J.S. Outline of Comparative Anatomy of Vertibrates. Central Book Depot., Allahabad.

4.    Sedgwick, A.A. Student Text Book of Zoology, Vol.-II 

5.    Romer, A.S. Vertibrate Body, IIIrd Ed. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia.

6.    Young, J.Z. Life of Vertibrates. The Oxford University Press, London.



Unit - 1    Basic Concept :

1.1    Introduction - Ethology as a branch of biology

1.2    Animal psychology - classification of behavioral patterns, Analysis of behavior (echogram).

1.3    Innate behavior 


Unit - 2    

2.1    Perception of the environment :

         2.1.1    Mechanical

         2.1.2    Electrical

         2.1.3    Chemical

         2.1.4    Olfactory

         2.1.5    Auditory

         2.1.6    Visual

2.2    Neural and hormonal control of behavior

2.3    Genetic and environmental components in the development of behavior


Unit - 3    Communication :

3.1    Chemical

3.2    Visual

3.3    Light

3.4    Audio

3.5    Species specificity of songs

3.6    Evolution of language (primates)


Unit - 4    Ecological aspects of behavior :

4.1    Habitat selection, food selection; optimal foreging theory, anti-predator defenses

4.2    Aggression, homing; territoriality; dispersal

4.3    Host-parasite relation

4.4    Social behavior - Aggregations - schooling in fishes, flocking in birds, herding in mammals


Unit - 5   

5.1    Reproductive behavior :

         5.1.1    Evolution of sex and reproductive strategies

         5.1.2    Mating systems

         5.1.3    Courtship

         5.1.4    Sperm competition

         5.1.5    Sexual selection

         5.1.6    Parental care

5.2    Biological rhythms :   

         5.2.1    Circadian and circannual rhythms

         5.2.2    Orientation and navihation

         5.2.3    Migration of fish, turtles and birds


Reference :

1.    Alcock, J. Animal behavior : An evolutionary approach. Sinauer Assoc., Sunderland, Mass. USA.

2.    Bradbury, J.W., and S.L. Vehrencamp. Principles of animal communication. Sinauer Asso.,
       Sunderland, Mass. USA.

3.    Clutton-Brock, T.H. The evolution of parental care. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, USA.

4.    Eibl-Eibesfeldt, I.Ethology. The biology of behavior. Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York.

5.    Gould, J.L. The mechanisms and evolution of behavior.

6.    Hauser, M. The evolution of communication. MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass. USA.

7.    Hinde, R.A. Animal behavior : A synthesis of theology and comparative psychology. McGraw-Hill,
       New York.

8.    Krebs, J.R. and N.B. Davies : Behavior ecology Blackwell, Oxford, U.K.

9.    Wilson, E.O. Sociobiology : The new synthesis. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass. USA.



Unit - 1    Biology of chromosome :

1.1    Molecular anatomy of eukaryotic chromosomes

1.2    Metaphease chromosome, centromere, kinetochore, telomere and its maintenance

1.3    Heterochromatine and Euchromatain

1.4    Gient Chromosome : Polytene & Lamp brush Chromosome Somatic Cell genetics

1.5    Cell fusion & hybrids - agents & mechanism of fusion

1.6    Heterokaryon - selecting hybrids & Chromosome segregation


Unit - 2    Human Cytogenetics :

2.1    Techniques in human chromosome analysis - molecular cytogenetics approach

2.2    Human karyotype - banding - nomenclature

2.3    Numerical & structural abnormalities of human chromosome - syndromes

2.4    Human genetics

2.5    Cytogenetics implications and consequences of structural changes and numerical alterations of 


Unit - 3    Microbial Genetics :

3.1    Bacterial transformation, transduction, conjugation, bacterial chromosome

3.2    Bacteriophage : Types, structure and morphology of T4 phage, Morphogenesis

3.3    Cytogenetic effects of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation

3.4    DNA finger printing

3.5    Flow cytometry

3.6    Genetics of cell cycle - genetic regulation of cell division in yeast and eukaryotes


Unit - 4    Molecular Biology :

4.1    DNA replication in prokaryotic and eucharistic cell 

4.2    Transcription in prokaryotic and eucharistic cell 

4.3    RNA & DNA polymorphisms

4.4    Regulatory elements & mechanism of transcription regulation

4.5    Post transcriptional modification in RNA


Unit - 5    Translation :

5.1    Genetic code

5.2    Prokaryotic and eucharistic translation

5.3    The translation machinery

5.4    Mechanics initiation, elongation & termination

5.5    Regulation of translation


Reference :

1.    Molecular Cell Biology, J. Daenell, H. Lodish and D. Baltimore Scientific American Book, Inc., USA

2.    Molecular Biology of the Cell, B. Alberts, D. Bray, J. Lewis, M. Raff, K. Roberts, and J.D. Watson. 
       Garland Publishing, Inc., New York.    

3.    Atherly, A.G., J.R. Girton and J.F. Donald. The Science of Genetics. Saunders College Publishing, 
       Harcourt Brace College Publishers, New York.

4.    Brooker, R.J. Genetics : Analysis and Principals. Benjamin / Cummings, Longman Inc.

5.    Lewin, B. Genes. VI. Oxford University Press, Oxford, New York, Tokyo.



Unit - 1    Overview of Ecology and environmental science : The Basics

1.1    Definition, scope and importance

1.2    Climatic factors : light, temperature, precipitation, humidity, and wind


Unit - 2    Natural resources :

2.1    Types of resources : Renewable and non-renewable resources - forest resources water resources, 
         mineral resources, food resources, energy resources and land resources

2.2    Roll of an individual in conservation of Natural resources


Unit - 3    Environmental pollution :

3.1    Introduction

3.2    Kinds of pollution

3.3    Types of pollutants 

3.4    Causes, effects and control measures of :

         a.    Air pollution

         b.    Water pollution

         c.    Soil pollution

         d.    Marine pollution

         e.    Noise pollution

         f.    Thermal pollution

         g.    Nuclear pollution

3.5    Solid waste management :

         -    Causes, effects and controls measures of urban and Industrial waste

3.6    Roll of an individual in prevention of pollution


Unit - 4    Environmental Education :

4.1    Goal, objectives and guiding principles of environmental education

4.2    Environmental education programme

4.3    Formal and non-formal environmental education

4.4    Environmental education in India


Unit - 5    Social issues and the environment :

5.1    Urban problems related to energy

5.2    Water conservation

5.3    Environmental ethics

5.4    Environment protection acts

5.5    Man and the biosphere programme (MAB)

5.6    National and international organization


Reference :

1.    Kerbs, C.J. (1985) : Ecology, 3rd Edition Harper and Row, New York, USA.

2.    Rickets, R.E. (1980) : Ecology, Hohn Wiley & Sons, New York.

3.    Pianka, B.R. (1985) : Evolutionary Ecology, 3rd Edition Harper and Row, New York.    

4.    Began, M.J.L. Harper and C.R., Townsend (1987) : Individuals, Population and Communities, 
       Blackwell Scientific Publication, Oxford, London.

5.    Hiseth, G.D. and K.D. Baumardner (1981) : Population Biology, Van Nostrand, New York.

6.    Pielon, E.C. (1974) : Population and Community Ecology; Principals and Methods - Gordon & 

       Breach, New York.

7.    Brewer, A. (1988) : The Science of Ecology, Saunders College Publishing, New York.

8.    Odum, U.P. (1983) : Basic Ecology, Saunders College Publishing, New York.

9.    Smith, R.L. (1986) : Elements of Ecology, Harper and Row Publishers, New York.

10.  Francois Ramade (1981) : Ecology of Natural Resources, John Wiley & Sons, INC, New York's.



    Practical are based on theory syllabus of each paper. If students are interested for registered dissertation work, they are bound to get registration in the university in starting of term. Such students have not to do practical based on Theory Paper No. VI (Marks - 50). Dissertation viva examination will be of 50 (Fifty) marks instead of Practical No. VI. Such students also have to submit their dissertation to the university dully sign by teacher concern and head of the department. Such students have not to submit any extra submission work.