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M.Sc. PART - I
[Effective from June - 2004]


The Proposed New course in chemistry for Post Graduate classical are redesigned in accordance with New

Education Policy. The redesigned New course based on Model curriculum of the University Grants Commission.


Its Objectives are as under :

1.    To meet the growing demands of specialization and advanced courses in applied science.

2.    To help the colleges to update and modernize their Laboratories.

3.    To redesign the courses with special emphasis on local requirements, environment and to link the courses

       with requirements of the industries and research.



Unit - 1    Stereochemistry and Bonding in Main Group Compounds :  

              VSEPR, Walsh diagrams (tri-and penta-atomic molecules), dp-Pp bonds, Bent rule and energetics of 
              hybridi - zation, some simple reactions of covalently bounded molecules.

                 Metal-Ligand Bounding :

              Limitation of crystal field theory, molecular orbital theory, octahedral, tetrahedral and square planar

              complexes, p-bonding and molecular orbital theory.    


Unit - 2    Metal-Ligand Equilibria in Solution :

              Stepwise and overall formation constants and their interaction, trend in stepwise constants. Factors

              affecting the stability of metal complexes with reference to the nature of metal ion and ligand, 

              chelate effect and its thermodynamic origin determination of binary formation constants by pH-metry


                 Metal p-Complexes :

              Metal carbonyls, structure and bonding, vibration spectra of metal carbonyls for bonding and 
              structural elucidation, important reactions of metal carbonyls; preparation, bonding, structure and 

              important reactions of transition metal nitrosyl, dinitrogen and dioxygen complexes; tertiary 

              phosphine as ligand.   


Unit - 3    Reaction Mechanism of Transition Metal Complexes :

              Energy profile of a reaction, reactivity of metal complexes, inert and labile complexes, kinetic 
              application of valence bond and crystal field theories, kinetics of octahedral substitution, acid 
              hydrolysis, factors affecting acid hydrolysis, conjugate base mechanism, direct and indirect 

              evidences in favour of conjugate mechanism, anation reactions, reactions without metal ligand bond 
              cleavage. Substitution reactions in square planner complexes the trans effect, mechanism of the 
              substitution reaction. Redox reactions, electron transfer reactions, mechanism of one electron 

              transfer reaction outerphere type reaction, cross reactions and Marcus-Hush theory, inner sphere 
              type reactions.


Unit - 4    Electronic Spectra and Megnetic Properties of Transition Metal Complexes :

              Spectroscopic ground states, correlation, Orgel and Tanabe-Sugano diagrams for transition metal 

              complexes (d1 - d9 states), calculations of Dq, B and ß parameters, charge transfer spectra, 

              spectroscopic method of assignment of absolute configuration in optically active metal chelates and

              their stereochemical information, anomalous magnetic moments, magnetic exchange coupling and 

              spin crossover.


Unit - 5    Metal Clusters :

              Higher boranes, carboranes, metalloboranes and metallocarboranes. Metal carbonyl and halide 

              clusters compounds with metal-metal multiple bonds. Isopoly and Heteropoly Acids and Salts 

                 Symmetry and Group Theory in Chemistry :

              Symmetry elements and symmetry operation, definition of group, subgroup, relation between orders 

              of a finite group and its subgroup. Conjugacy relation and classes. Point symmetry group. Schonfilies

              symbols, representations of groups by matrices (representation for the Cn1 Cnv1 Cnh1 Dnh1 etc. 

              groups to be worked out exaplicity). Character of a representation. The great orthogonality theorem

              (without proof) and its importance. Character tables and their use; spectroscopy.


Books Suggested :

1.    Advanced Inorganic Chemistry, F.A. Cotton and Wilkinson, John Wiley.

2.    Inorganic Chemistry, J.E. Huhey, Harpes & Row.

3.    Chemistry of the Elements, N.N. Greenwood and A. Earnshow, Pergamon.

4.    Inorganic Electronic Spectroscopy, A.B.P., Lever, Elsevier.

5.    Magnetochemistry, R.L. Carlin, Springer Veriag.

6.    Comprehensive Coordination Chemistry eds., G. Wilkinson, R.D. Gillars and J.A. McClevert / Pargamon.

7.    Chemical Applications of group theory P.A. Cotton.



Unit - 1    Nature of Bonding in Organic Molecules :

              Delocalized chemical bonding-conjugation, cross conjugation, resonance, hyperconjugation, bonding

              in fullerenes, tautomerism.

              Aromaticity in benzenoid and non-benzenoid compounds, alternant and non-alternant hydrocarbons,

              Huckel's rule, energy level of p-molecular orbitals, annulenes, antiaromaticity, y-aromaticity, homo-

              aromaticity, PMO approach.

              Bonds weaker than covalent-addition compounds, crown ether complexes and cryptands, inclusion

              compounds, cyclodextrins, catenanes and rotaxanes.

                 Stereochemistry :

              Conformational analysis of cycloalkanes, decalins, effect of conformation on reactivity, conformation

              of sugars, steric strain due to unavoidable crowding.

              Elements of symmetry, chirality, molecules with more than one chiral center, threo and erythro 

              isomers, methods of resolution, optical purity, enantiotopic and diastereotopic atoms, groups and 

              faces, stereospecific and stereoselective synthesis. Asymmetric synthesis. Optical activity in the

              absence of chiral carbon (biphenyls, allenes and spiranes), chirality due to helical shape.

              Stereochemistry of the compounds containing nitrogen, sulphur and phosphorus.


Unit - 2    Reaction Mechanism : Structure and Reactivity :

              Type of mechanisms, types of reactions, thermodynamics and kinetic requirements, kinetic and 
              thermodynamic control, Hammond's postulate Curtin-Hammett principle. Potential energy diagrams

              transition states and intermediates. Methods of determining mechanisms, isotope effects. Hard and

              soft acids and bases.

              Generation, structure, stability and reactivity of carbocations, carbanions, free rediacals, carbenes

              and nitrenes. Effect of structure on reactivity - resonance and field effects, steric effect, quantita- 
              tive treatment. The Hammett equation and linear free energy relationship, substituent and reaction

              constants. Taft equation.

                 Aliphatic Nucleophilic Substitution :

              The SN2, SN1, mixed  SN1 and SN2 and SET mechanisms.    

              The neighbouring groupmechanism, neighbouring group participation by p and s bonds anchimeric 

              Classical and nonclassical carbocations, phenonium ions, norbornyl system, common carbocation

              rearrangments. Application of NMR spectroscopy in the detection of carbocations.

              The SN mechanism.

              Nucleophilic substitution at an allylic, aliphatic trigonal and a vinylic carbon.

              Reactivity effects of substrate structure, attacking nucleophile, leaving group and reaction medium, 

              transfer catalysis and ultrasound, ambident nucleophile, regioselectivity.


Unit - 3    Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy :

A               Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy :           

              Nuclear spin, nuclear resonance, saturation, shielding of magnetic nuclel. chemical shift and its 
              measurements, factors influencing chemical shift deshielding, spin-spin interactions, factors 

              influencing coupling constant 'J'. Classification (ABX, AMX, ABC, A2B2 etc.) spin decopling basic ideas

              about instrument, NMR studies of nuclei other than proton - 13C, 19F and 31 P, FT NRM advantages

              of FT NRM, use of NRM in medical diagnostics.  

B               Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy :

              Basic principles, zero field splitting and Kramer's degeneracy, factors affecting the 'g' value Isotropic

              and anisotropic hyperfine coupling constants, spin Hamiltonian, spin densities and McConnell relation 

              - ship, measurement techniques application.

C               Nuclear Quadruple Resonance Spectroscopy :

              Quadruple nuclei, quadruple moments, electric field gradient, coupling constant, splittings application

              & problems related to NRM, IR, UV.       


Unit - 4    Addition to Carbon-Carbon Multiple Bonds :

              Mechanistic and stereo chemical aspects of addition involving electrophiles, nucleophiles and free

              radicals, regio and chemoselectivity, orientation and reactivity. Addition to cyclopropane ring. 
              Hydrogenation of double and triple bonds, hydrogenation of aromatic rings. Hydroboration. Michael

              reaction. Sharpless asymmetric epoxidation.

                 Addition to Carbon-Hetero Multiple Bonds :

              Mechanism of metal hydride reduction of saturated and unsaturated carbonyl compounds, acids, 

              ester and nitriles. Addition of Grignard reagents, organozinc and organolithium reagents to 

              carbonyl and unsaturated carbonyl compounds. Wittig reaction.

              Mechanism of condensation reaction involving enolates - Aldol, Knoevenagel, Claisen, Mannich, 
              Benzoin, Perkin and Stobbe reactions.

              Hydrolysis of esters and amides, ammonolysis of esters.

                 Elimination Reactions :

              The E2, E1 and E1cB mechanisms and their spectrum. Orientation of the double bond. Reactivity - 

              effects of substrate structures, attacking base, the leaving group and the medium.

              Mechanism and orientation in pyrolytic elimination.


Unit - 5    Per cyclic Reactions :

              Molecular orbital symmetry, Frontier orbital of ethylene, 1,3 - butadiene, 1,3,5 - hexatrience and 
              ally system. Classification of per cyclic reactions. Woodward - Hoffmann correlation diagrams. FMO

              and PMO approach. Electro cyclic reactions - condolatory and derogatory motions, 4n 4n+2 and ally

              systems, 2+2 addition of ketenes, 1,3 dipolar cycloadditions and cheeleotropic reactions. 

              Signatropic rearrangements - suprafacial and antarafacial shifts of H, sigmatropic shifts involving 

              carbon moieties, 3,3 - and 5,5 sigmatropic rearrangements. Claisen, Cope and aza-cope 
              rearrangements. Fluxional tautomerism. Ene reaction.      


Reference Books :

1.    Advanced Organic Chemistry - Reactions, Mechanism and structure, Jerry March, John Wiley.

2.    Advanced Organic Chemistry, F.A. Carey and R.J. Sundberg, Plenum.

3.    A Guide Book to Mechanism in Organic Chemistry, Pater Sykes, Longman.

4.    Structure and Mechanism in organic chemistry, C.K. Ingold, Cornell University Press.

5.    Organic Chemistry, R.T. Morrison and R.N. Boyd, Prentice - Hall.

6.    Modern Organic Reactions, H.O. House, Benjamin.

7.    Principles of Organic Synthesis, R.O.C. Norman and J.M. Coxon, Blackie Academic & Professional.

8.    Pericyclic Reaction, S.M. Mukherji, Macmillan, India.

9.    Reaction Mechanism in Organic Chemistry, S.M. Mukherji and S.P. Singh, Macmillan.

10.  Stereochemistry of Organic Compounds, D. Nasipuri, New Age International.

11.  Stereochemistry of Organic Compounds, P.S. Kalsi, New Age International.

12.  Modern Spectroscopy, J.M. Mollas, John Wiley.

13.  Applied electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis. Ed. H. Windawi and F.L. Ho Wiley interscience.

14.  NMR, NQR, EPR and Mossbauer spectroscopy in Organic chemistry, R.V. Parish, Ellis Harwood.

15.  Basic Principle of Spectroscopy, R. Chans, McGraw-Hill.




Unit - l

Basic concepts of classical methods: - Scope of Analytical chemistry (Introduction, Application & its importance). Classical methods & Instrumental methods, methods of quantitative analyses & qualitative analyses. Analytical methodology (steps of total analyses process). Sampling, treatment of analytical data, sources of error, Deviation (average deviation & standard deviation), absolute error & accuracy. F test,

't' test, χ2 test. analysis of variation, rejection of a result 2D ,4D, Q test, linear least squares method, correlation coefficient

Unit - 2

Separation techniques: Solvent extraction (liquid -liquid extraction) principle, classification, factors favoring solvent extraction, advantage & application, synergistic extraction -extraction of crown ethers, cryptands & calixarenes.

Adsorption chromatography: principle experimental factors affecting column efficiency & applications. Phase chromatography (paper & TLC) & its uses.

HPLC principles, instrumentation & applications. Super critical fluid chromatography

Unit – 3

Principles of volumetric analyses.

Titrimetricv methods of analyses: general principles, basic requirements, standard solutions, detection of end point, indirect titrations, minimization of errors, types of reactions in Titrimetric analyses.

Aqueous acid -base titration: Theories of acid & base concepts, titration curves, and acid -base indicators. Feasibility of acid-base titration, the concept of equivalence point. Fluorescent indicators applications of acid -base titration calculation of concentrations of species at a given PH.

Non-aqueous acid -base titration: roll of solvent in acid — base titration, properties of a solvent, Autoprotolysis constant, dielectric constant, redox titrations, feasibility of redox titrations, redox indicators, Iodometric & Iodimetric determinations, Industrial applications of aqueous &  Non­aqueous titrations.

Unit - 4

      Environmental chemistry:-

Environment concept & scope of analytical chemistry. .Environmental segments & the natural cycles. Atmosphere structure, particle ions & radical in atmosphere, green house effect, ozone hole.

Industrial pollution: waste management. Methodologies, Techniques available & new approaches.

Water analyses, collection of samples, Determination of hardness, alkalinity, DO, BOD, COD, chloride, sulfate and nitrate -nitrite.

Unit - 5

      Spectro chemical methods:

Molecular spectroscopy UV & visible: principle theory, Choice of solvent, Instrumentation & applications.

Atomic spectroscopy: Atomic absorption & fluorescence spectroscopy -Introduction, sample admission techniques, Instrumentation-interferences -Analytical applications. IR, non-dispersive IR & FTIR-Fourier transform IR spectroscopy-principle. Instrumentation  & applications.



[1] Gravimetric analysis

[2] Volumetric analysis

[3] Electro chemistry

[4] Separation techniques

[5] Applied analysis

[6] Instrumental analysis


           Details to be worked out by the department


         [1]  Principles of instrumental analysis, 5th  Ed. D.A. Scoog , F.. J. Holler, T .A. Nieman

[2]  Introduction to Chemical Analysis, 2 nd Ed., Robert D.Braun

[3]  Vogel's text book of Quantitative Analysis ,5th Ed.

     [4]  Analytical Chemistry, G.D.Christian,6th Ed




Unit - 1    Photo acoustic Spectroscopy :

              Basic principles of photo acoustic spectroscopy (PAS), PAS-gases and condensed systems, chemical

              and surface application.

                 X-ray Diffraction :

              Bragg condition, Miller indices, Laue method, Bragg method, Debye-Scherrer method of X-ray 
              structural analysis of crystal, index reflection, indentification of unit cells from systemetic absences

              in diffraction pattern. Structure of simple lattices and X-ray intensities, structure factor and its 
              relation to intensity and electron density, phase problem. Description of the procedure for an X-ray

              structure analysis, absolute configuration of molecules, Ramchandran diagram.

                Electron Diffraction :

              Scattering intensity vs. scattering angel, Wierl equation, measurement technique, elucidation of 
              structure of simple gas phase molecules. Low energy electron diffraction and structure of surfaces.   

                 Neutron Diffraction :

              Scattering of neutrons by solids and liquids, magnetic scattering measurement techniques. 

              Elucidation of structure of  magnetically ordered unit cell.      


Unit - 2    Thermodynamics :

A               Classical Thermodynamics :

              Brief resume of concepts of laws of thermodynamics, free energy, chemical potential and entropies.

              Partial molar properties; partial molar free energy, partial molar volume and partial molar heat content

              and their significances. Determinations of these quantities. Concept of fugacity and determination of


              Non-ideal systems : Excess functions for non-ideal solutions. Activity, activity coefficient, Debye -

              Huckel theory for activity coefficient of electrolytic solutions, determination of activity and activity

              coefficients; ionic strength.

B               Statistical Thermodynamics :

              Concept of distribution, thermodynamic probability and most probable distribution, Ensemble 

              averaging postulates of ensemble averaging. Canonical, grand canonical and micro canonical 
              ensembles, corresponding distribution laws (using Lagrange's method of undetermined multipliers). 

              Partition functions - transnational, rotational, vibration and electronic partition functions, calculation

              of thermodynamic properties in terms of partition functions. Applications of partition functions.

              Heat capacity behavior of solids - chemical equilibrium constant in terms of partition functions, 
              Fermi-Dirac statistics, distribution law and applications to metal. Bose-Einstein statistics - 

              distribution law and application to helium.          

C               Non Equilibrium Thermodynamics :

              Thermodynamics criteria for non-equilibrium states, entropy production and entropy flow, entropy

              balance equations for different irreversible processes (e.g. heat flow, chemical reaction etc.) 
              transformations of the generalized fluxes and forces, non equilibrium stationary states, phenomeno- 
              logical equations, microscopic reversibility and Onsager's reciprocity relations, electrokinetic 
              phenomena, diffusion, electric conduction, irreversible thermodynamics for biological systems, 



Unit - 3    Chemical Dynamics :

              Methods of determining rate laws, collision theory of reaction rates, steric factor, activated complex

              theory - Arrhenius equation and the activated complex theory; ionic reactions, kinetic salt effects,

              steady state kinetic and thermodynamic control of reactions, treatment of unimolecular reactions.

              Dynamic chain (hydrogen-bromine reaction, pyrolysis of acetaldehyde, decomposition of ethane),

              photochemical (hydrogen-bromine and hydrogen-chlorine reactions) and oscillatory reactions 

              (Belousov - Zhabotinsky reaction), homogeneous catalysis, kinetics of enzyme reactions, general 

              features of fast reactions, study of fast reactions by flow method, relaxation method, flash 

              proteolysis and the nuclear magnetic resonance method, Dynamics of molecular motions, probing the

              transition state, dynamics of barrierless chemical reactions in solution, dynamics of unimolecular 
              reactions (Lindemann - Hinshelwood and Rice - Ramsperger - Kassel-Marcus [RRKM] theories of

              unimolecular reactions).   


Unit - 4    Surface Chemistry :

A               Adsorption :

              Surface tension, capillary action, pressure difference across curved surface (Laplace euqation), 
              vapour pressure of droplets (Kelvin equation), Gibbs adsorption isotherm, estimation of surface area

              (BET equation), surface films on liquids (Electro-kinetic phenomenon), catalytic activity at surfaces.

B               Micelles :

              Surface active agents, classification of surface active agents, micellization, hydrophobic interaction

              critical micellar concentration (CMC), factors affecting the CMC of surfactants, counter ion binding

              to micelles, thermodynamics of micellization - phase separation and mass action models, 

              solubilization, micro emulsion, reverse micelles.

C               Macromolecules :

              Ploymer - definition, types of polymers, electrically conducting, fire resistant, liquid crystal polymers,

              kinetics of polymerization, mechanism of polymerization.

              Molecular mass, number and mass average molecular mass, molecular mass determination 

              (osmometry) viscometry, diffusion and light scattering methods), sedimentation, chain configuration 
              of macromolecules, calculation of average dimensions of various chain structures.


Unit - 5    Electrochemistry :

              Electrochemistry of solutions. Debye-Huckel-Onsager treatment and its extension, ion solvent 
              interactions. Debye-Huckel-Jerum mode.

              Thermodynamics of electrified interface equations. Derivation of electro capillarity, Lippmann 
              equations (surface excess), methods of determination, structure of electrified interfaces. 
              Guoy-Chapman, Stern, Graham - Devanathan - Mott watts, Tobin, Bockris, Devanathan models.

              Over potentials, exchange current density, derivation of Butler - Volmer equation, Tafel plot.

              Quantum aspects of charge transfer at electrodes-solution interfaces, quantization of charge 

              transfer tunneling.

              Semiconductor interfaces - theory of double layer at semiconductor, electrolyte solution interfaces,

              structure of double layer interfaces. Effect of light at semiconductor solution interface.

              Electro catalysis - influence of various parameters. Hydrogen electrode.

              Bioelectrochemistry, threshold membrane phenomena, Nernst - Planck equation, Hodges - Huxley 
              equation, core conductor models, electrocardiography.

              Polarography theory, likovic equation; half wave potential and its significance.

              Introduction to corrosion, homogenous theory, forms of corrosion, corrosion monitoring and 

              prevention methods.      


Reference Books :

1.    Physical Chemicstry, P.W. Atkins, ELBS.

2.    Chemical kinetics, K.J. Laidler, McGraw-Hill.

3.    Kinetics and Mechanism of Chemical Transformations, J. Rajaraman and J. Kuriacose, Macmillan.

4.    Micelles, Theoretical and Applied Aspects, V. Moroi, Plenum.

5.    Modern Electrochemistry Vol.-I & II, J.O.M. Bockris and A.K.N. Reddy, Plenum.

6.    Introduction to Polymer Science, V.R. Gowarikar, N.V. Vishwanathan and J. Sridhar Wiley Eastern.

7.    Modern Spectroscopy, J.M. Hollas, John Wiley.

8.    Applied Electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis ed. H. Windawi and F.L.Ho. Wiley interscience.

9.    Physical methods in chemistry, R.S. Drago, Sauders College.

10.  Introduction to molecular spectroscopy, G.M. Barrow, McGraw-Hill.

11.  Basic Principles of sepctroscopy, R. Chang, McGraw-Hill.





Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis :

(a)    Less common metal ions - Ti, Mo, Ti, Zr, Th, V, U, Ce, Be, Li (two less common metal ions in cationic /


(b)    Insoluble - oxides, sulphates and halides. (Minimum Ten Mixtures)

(c)    Separation and determination of two metal ions Cu-Ni, Ni-Zn, Cu-Fe, Cu-Al etc. involving volumetric and

        gravimetric methods.


Chromatography (Minimum Five)

Separation of cations and anions by :

(a)    Paper Chromatography

(b)    Column Chromatography - Ion Exchange


Preparations : Minimum Seven 

Preparation of selected inorganic compounds and their studies by conventional methods* and / or verification

by IR, electronic spectra, Mossbauer, E.S.R. and magnetic susceptibility measurements. Handing of air and moisture sensitive compounds.

(1)    Cis-K[Cr(C2O4)2(H2O2]

(2)    Na[Cr(NH3)2(SCN4]

(3)    Mn(acac)3

(4)    K3[Fe(C2O4)3]H2O

(5)    Prussian Blue, Turnbull's Blue. Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3

(6)    [Co(NH3)6] [Co(NO2)6]

(7)    Cis-[Co(trine) (NO2)2] CI.H2O

(8)    [Ni(NH3)6] CI2

(9)    Ni (dmg)2

(10)  [Cu(NH3)4SO4H2O


Volumetric / Gravimetric / Colorimetric





Qualitative Analysis :

Separation, purification and identification of compounds of binary mixture (one liquid and one solid) using TLC

and column chromatography, chemical tests*. IR spectra to be used for functional group identification.

*    Separation by types Minimum Ten binary Mixtures


Organic Synthesis :    

Activation : Activation of cholesterol and separation of cholesterol acetate by column chromatography .

Oxidation : Adipic acid by chromic acid oxidation of cyclohexaol.

Grignard reaction : Synthesis of triphenylmethanol from benzoic acid

Aldol condensation : Dibenzal acetone from benzaldehyde.

Sandmeyer reaction : p-Chlorotiluene from p-toluidine.

Acetoacetic ester condensation : Synthesis of ethyl-n-butylacetoacetate by A.E.E. condensation.

Cannizzaro reaction : 4-Chlorobenzaldehyde as substrate.

Friedel Crafts Reaction : Benzoyl propionic acid from succinic anhydride and benzene.

Aromatic electrophilic substitutions : Synthesis of p-nitroaniline and p-bromoaniline.

The Products may be characterized by special or chemical Techniques.


Quantitative Analysis :

Determination of the percentage or number of hydroxyl groups in an organic compounds by acetylation or any trivial method (Simple, say bromination)

Esimation of amines/phenols using bromate bromide solution/or acetylation method 

Determination of lodine and Saponification values of an sample.

Determination of DO, COD and BOD of water sample.




Number of hours for each experiment : 3-4 hours 


A list of experiments under - different heading are given below. Typical experiments are to be selected from 

each type. Students are required to perform at least 20 experiments.




Error Analysis and Statistical Data Analysis : [Minimum 3]

Errors, types of errors, minimization of errors, error, distribution curves, precision, accuracy and combination;

statistical treatment for error analysis, student 't' test, null hypothesis, rejection criteria, F & Q test linear

regression analysis, curve fitting. (Only calculations, Readings to be provided to the students)

Calibration of volumetric apparatus, burette, pipette and standard flask.


Adsorption :

To study surface tension - concentration relationship for solutions (Gibbs equation).


Phase Equilibrium :

(1)    Determination of congruent composition and temperature of a binary system (e.g., diphenylamine - 

        benzophenone system)

(2)    Determination of glass transition temperature of a given salf (e.g., CaCl2) conductometrically.

(3)    To construct the phase diagram for three component system (e.g., chloroform-acetic acid-water).


Chemical Kinetics : (Any Three)

(1)    Determination of the effect of (a) Change of temperature (b) Change of concentration of reactants and 

        catalyst and (c) lonic strength of the media on the velocity constant of hydrolysis of an ester/ionic


(2)    Determination of the velocity constant of hydrolysis of an ester/ionic reaction in micellar media.

(3)    Determination of the rate constant for the oxidation of iodide ions by hydrogen peroxide studying the 
        kinetics as an iodine clock reaction.

(4)    Flowing clock reaction (Ref: Experiments in Physical Chemistry by snowmaker)

(5)    Determination of the primary salt effect on the kinetics of ionic reaction and testing of the Bronzed 
        relationship (iodide ion is oxidized by persulphate ion)

(6)    Oscillatory reaction.


Solution : (Any One)

(1)    Determination of molecular weight of non-volatile and non-electrote/electrolyte by cryoscopic method 

        and to determine the activity coefficient of an electrolyte.

(2)    Determination of the degree of dissociation of weak electrolyte and to study the deviation from ideal 

        behavior that occurs with a strong electrolyte.





A.    Conductometry : (Any Four)

(1)    Determination of the velocity constant, order of the reaction and energy of activation for specification

        of acetate by sodium hydroxide conduct metrically.

(2)    Determination of solubility and solubility product of sparingly soluble salt (e.g. PbSO4, BaSO4) conducto - 

(3)    Determination of the strength of strong and weak acids in a given mixture conductometrically.

(4)    To study the effect of solvent on the conductance of AgNO3 / acetic acid and to determine the degree

        of dissociation and equilibrium constant in different solvents and in their mixtures (DMSO, DMF, dioxane,

        acetone, water) and to test the validity of Debye-Huckel-Onsager theory.

(5)    Determination of the activity coefficient of Zinc ions in the solution of 0.002 M zinc sulphate using Debye

        Huckel's limiting law.


B.    Potentiometry / pH metry : (Any Five)

(1)    Determination of strengths of halides in a mixture potentiometrically.

(2)    Determination of the valiancy of mercurous ions potentiometrically.

(3)    Determination of the strength of strong and weak acids in a given mixture using a potentiometer/pH meter

(4)    Determination of temperature dependence EMF of a cell.

(5)    Determination of the formation constant of silver-ammonia complex and stoichiometry of the complex


(6)    Acid-base titration in a non-aqueous media using a pH meter.

(7)    Determination of activity and activity coefficient of electrolytes.

(8)    Determination of the dissociation constant of acetic acid in DMSO, DMF, acetone and dioxane by titrating

        it with KOH.

(9)    Determination of the dissociation constant of monobasic/dibasic acid by Albert-Serjeant method.

(10)  Determination of thermodynamics constant, DG, DS and DH for the reaction by e.m.f. method.

        Zn + H2SO4 ® ZnSO4 + 2H


Polarimetry : (Any One)

(1)    Determination of rate constant for hydrolysis / inversion of sugar using a polarimeter.

(2)    Enzyme kinetics - inversion of sucrose.


Books Suggested [Laboratory Course]

1.     Vogel's Textbook of Quantitative Analysis, revised, J. Bassett, R.C. Denney, G.H. Jeffery and J. Mendham,


2.     Synthesis and characterization of Inorganic Compounds, W.L. Jolly, Prentice-Hall.

3.     Experiments and Techniques in Organic Chemistry, D. Pasto, C. Johnson and M. Miller, Prentice-Hall.

4.     Macroscale and Microscale Organic Experiments, K.L. Williamson, D.C. Heath.

5.     Systematic Quantitative Organic Analysis, H. Middleton, Adward Amodi.

6.     Handbook of Organic Analysis - Quantitative and Quantitative, H. Clark, Adward Arnold.

7.     Vogel's Textbook of Practical Organic Chemistry, A.R. Tatchell, John Wiley.

8.     Practical Physical Chemistry, A.M. James and F.E. Prichard, Longman.

9.     Findley's Practical Physical Chemistry, B.P. Levitt, Longman.

10.   Experimental Physical Chemistry, R.C. Das and B. Behera, Tata McGraw-Hill.



There will be Three papers each paper having Section-I (Unit : I,II,III) Section-II (Unit : IV,V) of the theory

at the University examination.

Theory (Written Paper) Duration Marks
P-I   Inorganic Chemistry
P-II  Organic Chemistry
P-III Physical Chemistry

3 Hours
3 Hours
3 Hours


Type of University Paper :

Question Number Number of Units for the question Marks Per
1 1 20
2 2 20
3 3 20
4 4 20
5 5 20

University Examination : [Chemistry Laboratory Course]

Laboratory Course Duration Marks External
Chemistry Practical 21 Hours 150



FIRST DAY : (45 MARKS)       


[A]    Inorganic mixture containing six ions with less common metal ions, Tl, Mo, W, Th, Zr, V, U, Ll, Tl, Ce,

        Be, (two less common metal ions in cationic/anionic forms), insoluble oxide, sulphate and halides. [25]


        There shall be no deduction of marks for the representation of wrong radical in the Inorganic qualitative




[A]    Separation and determination of two metal ions : Cu-Ni, Ni-Zn, Cu-Fe, Cu-Al etc involving volumetric

        and gravimetric methods. [25]


[A]    Preparation of inorganic compounds and their studies by I.R., electronic spectra, Mossbauer, E.S.R.,

        magnetic susceptibility, volumetric, gravimetric, colourimetric and spectropotometric. measurements.

        Handling of air and moisture sensitive compounds.  [25]

[B]    Separation of cations of the Groups I,II,III,IV and VI and anions by paper chromatography / column

        chromatography - ion exchange method. [15]

[C]    Viva [05]  





[A]    Separation, purification and identification of compounds of binary mixture (one liquid and one solid) using

        TLC and / or column chromatography, chemical tests, IR spectra to be used for functional group

        identification. [25]


[A]    Organic Synthesis : (The products may be characterized by conventional methods / spectral techniques.


[B]    Quantitative Analysis  [15]

[C]    Viva  [05]





Physico-Chemical Exercises :

[A]    Section - I (Any one experiment)                    [20]

[B]    Section - II (Any one experiment)                   [20]

[C]    Viva                                                          [05]


        Project Report. (Minimum 25 pages in English)    [10]

        Journals                                                      [05] 


Standard of Passing for the First Year M.Sc. Examination :

To pass the examination, candidate must obtain 36% of the marks in each paper and aggregate 36% of the marks in Laboratory course exercises (practicals)