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[Annual Pattern - With effect from June, 2005]  [U.G.C.]
M.Sc. Part - I     BOTANY

1.    There will be three theory papers and three practicals at M.Sc. Part - I.

2.    The syllabus is to be completed by assigning six lectures, each of an hour duration, per paper and 
       three practicals as per university rules.

3.    The number of students in a practical batch should not exceed ten.

4.    The candidate will be examined in theory papers and practicals to make the total of 450 marks at the 
       end of the year.

       (a)    100 marks for each theory paper    :    300 Marks

       (b)    50 marks for each practicals            :    150 Marks    

5.    Each theory paper examination will be of 3 hours duration.

6.    Each practical examination will be of 5 hours duration.

7.    There shall be at least one Botanical excusion for each year. It will pertain to different botanical 
       regions of the country. Botanical excursion is highly essential for studying the vegetation in its 
       natural state. The students are expected to submit tour report during the annual practical 

8.    The students shall be required to produce the following during the annual practical examination :

       (a)    Laboratory Journals and dairy of the filed work, duly signed by the concern teacher and Head 

                of  the department. 

       (b)    A set of micro preparations, materials and herbarium sheets illustrating subject matter.


Details of the Papers at M.Sc. Part - I :

Paper - I    Biology and diversity of lower plants : Cryptogams

Paper - II   Taxonomy and diversity of seed plants, Plant development and reproduction

Paper - III  Plant Physiology, metabolism and Biochemistry


Pattern of Examination :


                          Duration                  Marks

Paper - I            3 hours                100          

Paper - II           3 hours                100

Paper - III          3 hours                100


Practicals :

Each paper is based on the theory paper :

                                                                               Duration        Marks

Practical-I        based on theory paper-I             5 hours             50

Practical-II       based on theory paper-II            5 hours            50

Practical-III      based on theory paper-III          5 hours             50

Paper - I Bacteriology, Virology, Phycology, Mycology, Bryology and Pteridology


Unit - 1    Bacteriology and Virology :    20 Marks  [30 hours]

Bacteriology :

1.    Archaebacteria and eubacteria - General account.

2.    Classification of Bacteria.

3.    General characteristics of Bacteria.

4.    Ultra structure of Bacteria.

5.    Nutrition in Bacteria.

       (1)    Autotrophy    (2)    Heterotrophy    (3)    Symbioisis

6.    Reproduction in Bacteria.

7.    Economic importance.

8.    Cyanobacteria - Salient features and biological importance.

Virology :

9.    Characteristics and Ultra structure of viruses.

10.  Isolation and purification of viruses, chemical nature.

11.  Replication and Transmission of viruses.

12.  Economic importance of viruses.

Phytoplasma :

13.  General characteristics.

14.  Role in causing plant diseases.


Unit - 2    Phycology :    20 Marks [30 hours]

1.    Recent criteria of classification of Algae.

2.    Algae in diversified habitat (Terrestrial, Fresh water, Marine).

3.    Thallus organization (Range of thallus) and reproduction (vegetative, asexual and sexual).

4.    Ultra structure of cell, flagella, chloroplast, pyrenoids and eyespot in major groups in Algae.

5.    Salient features of following Algal taxa : Cynophyta, Chlorophyta, Xanthophyta, Bacillariophyta,
       Pheophyta and Rhodophyta up to ordinal level with reference to following genera :

       Spirulina, Rivularia, Anabaena, Pandorina, Chlorella, Draparnaldia, Enteromorpha, Cladophora,
       Closterium, Zygneme, Nitella, Botrydium, Pinnularia, Dictyota, Padina and Ceramium.

6.    Life cycle patterns in Algae and Algal blooms.

7.    Economics importance of Algae - Algal biofertilizers, algae as a food, feed and used in industries.

8.    Costal algae of Gujarat.


Unit - 3    Mycology :    20 Marks [40 hours]

1.    Recent trends in classification of fungi.

2.    General character of fungi, Ultrastructure of cell, cell wall composition, nutrition (saprobic,   

        biotrophic,  symbiotic), reproduction (vegetative, asexual, sexual), Heterothallism, 

        Heterokaryosis, Parasexuality.

3.    Phylogeny of fungi.

4.    Diagnostics features of subdivision and genera upto ordinal level.

       1.    Mastigomycotina        :    Albugo, Peronospora

       2.    Zygomycotina             :    Rhizopus

       3.    Ascomycotina              :    Penicillium, Marchella

       4.    Basidiomycotina         :    Lycoperdon, Puccinia

       5.    Deuteromycotina        :    Alternaria, Colletotrichum

5.    Economic importance of fungi.

       (1)    Food and folder     (2)    Industry    (3)    Medicine    (4)    Mushroom cultivation.

6.    Mycorrhizae.

7.    Fungi as a bio-control agent.


Unit - 4    Bryology :    20 Marks [30 hours]

1.    General character and classification by Rothmaler and Proskar.

2.    Vegetative reproduction in Bryophytes.

3.    Morphological, anatomical and cytological studies of the gametophytes and sporophytes of the
       following :

       (1) Marchantiales (2) Jungermaniales (3) Anthoceroteles (4) Sphagnales (5) Bryales.

4.    Origin pf Bryophytes (including fosil evidence)

5.    Evolution of Sporophytes.

6.    Bryophytes as bioindicator of water and air pollution.

7.    Economic importance of Bryophytes.


Unit - 5    Pteridology :    20 Marks [30 hours]

1.    Classification of Pteridophytes.

2.    Telome theory (evolution of sporophytes); Evolution of stele, solar evolution in ferns.

3.    Heterospory and seed habit.

4.    Systematies, Phylogeny, Organography and reproduction of the following :

       (1)  Psilotales (2) Lycopodialesc (3) Ophioglossales (4) Marraliales (5) Osmundales (6) Filiealesc

       (7)  Salviniales.

5.    Pteridophytic life cycle with reference to

       (1)    Alternation of haploid and diploid phase.

       (2)    Abnormalities in alternation of  generation - Apogamy, Apospory and Vegetative apomixes.

       (3)    Evolutionary trends among the filicophyta.




Bacteriology :

1.    Preparation of media and isolation of Bacteria.

2.    Methods of staining to study Gram +ve and Gram -ve Bacteria.

3.    Motility of Bacteria by Hay infusion.

4.    Study of different viral disease occurring in plant : TMV disease, Leaf roll of potato and yellow 
       mosaic of Bean.    

Phycology :

5.    Collection and study of algae mentioned in theory. Identification up to genetic level.

6.    Culture of some importance algae.

Mycology :

7.    Study of the morphological characteristics and reproductive structure in genera mentioned in theory.

Bryology :

8.    Morphological and structure study of representative member of the following group using cleared 
       whole mount preparation, dissection and selection.

       (1) Marechantiales    :    Plagiochasma, Fimbriaria, Riboulia.

       (2) Jungermanmiales :   Pellia, Porella

       (3) Anthocerotales      :   Notothylus

       (4) Sphagnates             :   Polytrichum

9.    Study of Bryophytes in their natural habitates.

Pteridology :

10.  Study of Morphological and anatomy of vegetative and reproductive organs of the following genera :

       (1) Psilotam (2) Lycopodium (3) Botrychium (4) Osmunda (5) Eyathea (6) Lygodium 

       (7) Gleichenia  (8) Pteris (9) Dryopteris (10) Azolla.

11.  Study of Pteridophytes in their nature habitates.



[NEW COURSE]  [50 Marks]


Q.1    Prepare a slide of ___________ bacteria from the given material 'A' Show your preparation to the 

Q.2    Identify and classify material 'B', 'C', 'D' and 'E' giving reason.

Q.3    Identify and write peculiarities observed in material 'F', 'G', 'H' and 'I'. Show your slide to the 

Q.4    Expose the reproduction organs from the given material 'J'. Draw labeled diagram and show your 
          preparation to the examiner.

Q.5    Identify and write peculiarities observed in the slide 'K', 'L', 'M' and 'N'

Q.6    Submission, Viva and Journal.

Paper - II Taxonomy and Diversity of seed plants, Plant Development and Reproduction


Unit - 1    Gymnosperms :    20 Marks [40 hours]

-    General characters, affinities and classification of gymnosperms (only bierhorst) with reasons and their 
     distributions in India.    

-    Brief account of the families of Pteridospermales (Lyginopteridaceae, Medullosaceae, Caytoniacease 
     and Glossopteridaceae.)

-    Comparative account of morphology and anatomy of vegetative and reproductive organs and 
     interrelationship of :

     (1)    Cycadales    (2)    Coniferales    (3)    Taxales    (4)    Ephiderales    (5)    Gnetales

-    Structure and evolution of male of female gemetophytes in major groups of gymnosperms

-    Evolutionary tendencies of gymnosperms.

-    Geological rise and fall of gymnosperms.


Unit - 2    Taxonomy of Angiosperms :    20 Marks [40 hours]

-    Evolution and differentiation of species - various models.

-    Salient features of international code of botanical nomenclature.

     (History, Principles, Articles, Recommendations, Amendments of code).

-    Taxonomic evidences : palynology, embryology and phytochemistry.

-    Classification; History - introduction only, important system - (i) Bentham and Hooker (ii)    

     Hutchinson   (iii) Arthur Cronquist. (iv) Robert Thorne

-    Phylogeny of Ranales, Rosales; Tubiflorae and Helobiales.

-    Flora of Gujarat State (General account).


Unit - 3    Taxonomy of Angiosperms & Ethnolotany :    20 Marks [30 hours]

-    Taxonomic tools : Herbarium, Floras, Histological, cytological.

-    Photochemical, serological and molecular technique, computer.

-    Concept of phytogeography : Endemism, hotspots, hottest hotspots, plant exploration, invasions 

     and  introduction, Local plant diversity and its socioeconomic importance.                    

-    Ethno botany : Global status, landmarks of ethno forestry, sacres plants, sacred grove and 

     conservation.  Literature of ethno botany - Indian and foreign, Ethno botany in context of national 

     priorities and health care programmes.

-    Medico-ethno botanical surveys and their role in Ayurveda. Following medico ethno botanical 
     important plants are to be studied :

     Adhatoda, Rauwolfia, Neem, Madhuca, Turmeric, Pipal, Tulsi, Amla, Behada.


Unit - 4    Plant Development :    20 Marks [30 hours]

-    Seed germination and seedling growth : Metabolism of nucleic acids and proteins and mobilization 

     of  food reserves.   

-    Shoot development : Organization of vegetative and reproductive shoot apical meristems (SAM); 
     cytological  and molecular analysis of SAM, control of cell division and cell to cell communication, 
     Secretary ducts and laticifers, wood development in relation to environmental factors. hormonal 
     control of seedling growth.

-    Root development : Organization of root apical meristem, Vascular tissue differentiation, lateral 

     roots, root hairs.

-    Leaf growth and differentiation : Determination, phyllotaxy, differentiation of epidermis (with 

     special reference to stomata and trichomes) and mesophyll.

-    Dormancy : Importance and types of dormancy, seed dormancy, overcoming seed dormancy, but 


Unit - 5    Plant Reproduction :    20 Marks [40 hours]

-    Reproduction : Vegetative options and sexual reproduction, Flower development.

-    Male gametophyte : microsporogenesis, role of tapetum, pollen development and gene 

     expression,  male sterility, sperm dimorphism and hybrid seed production, pollen germination, 

     pollen tube growth  and guidance, pollen storage, pollen allergy, pollen embryos.

-    Female gametophyte : megasporogenesis, organization of embryo sac, structure of the embryo sac 

-    Pollination, pollen-pistil interaction and fertilization : Structure of the pistil, pollen-stigma  

     interactions, sporophytic and gametophytic self incomatibility (cytological, biochemical and 

     molecular aspects), in vitro fertilization.

-    Seed development and fruit growth : Endosperm development during early, maturation and 
     desiccation stages, embryogenesis, ultrastructure and nuclear cytology, cell lineages during late 
     embryo development, polyembryony, embryo culture, dynamics of fruit growth, biochemistry and 
     molecular biology of fruit maturation.




Gymnosperms :

Study of morphology and anatomy of vegetative and reproductive organs through specimens, whole mounting, sections and permanent slides of the followings.

(1) Cedrus (2) Abies (3) Cupressus (4) Cryptomeria (5) Podocarpus (6) Araucaria (7) Taxus (8) Ephedra

Study of important fossil gymnosperms (as per theory syllabus) from slides and specimens 


Taxonomy of Angiosperms and ethnobotany :

(1)    Following families are to be studied for practical purpose :


Dicotyledonear :

Polypetalae :

Thalamiflorae :    Annonaceae, Nymphaeceae, Capparaceae, Violaceae, Polygalaceae,

                               Caryophylaceae, Elatinaceae, Sterculiaceae

Disciflorae :          Simarubiaceae, Meliaceae, Celastraceae, Vitaceae, Anacardiaceae

Calyciflorae :        Rosaceae, Crasulaceae, Lythraceae, Onagraceae, Passifloraceae, Cactaceae, 

                               Apiaceae,  Alangiaceae

Gamopetalae : 

Inferae             :     Asteraceae.

Hetromereae  :     Plumbaginaceae, Primulaceae, Ebenaceae.

Bicarpellare    :     Salvadoraceae, Gentianaceae, Boraginaceae, Scrophulariaceae.

                                Lentibulariaceae, Acanthaceae, Pedaliaceae, Loranthaceae.


Monoclamydeae :   

Chenopodiaceae, Aristolochiaceae; Loranthaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Casurinaceae.

Monocotyledoneae :

(1)    Musaceae, Haemodoraceae, Typhaceae, Lemnaceae, Eriocaulaceae, Poaceae, Cyperaceae.

(2)    Description of the specimens studied in the above mentioned families.

(3)    Identification of families, genus and species using key.

(4)    Identification of diagnostic characters and use of key (provided) at the level of various families 

        after  the descriptions have made.

(5)    Preparation of dichotomous keys (using specimens from there of four families)

(6)    Preparation of 75 herbarium sheets which are to be submitted at the time of annual practical 

(7)    Medico - ethonobotanical plants mentioned in the theory syllabus should be taught practically.

(8)    15 herbarium specimens of ethonobotanical importance are to be prepared and submitted by the 
         students during practical examination.


Plant Development :

Effect of plant growth regulators on the growth of young seedlings. 

Study of living shoot apices by dissections using aquatic plant - Ceratophyllum or Hydrilla.

Study of cytohistological zonation in the shoot apical meristem in sectioned (through microtome) and double stained permanent slides of a suitable plant - Coleus / Kalanchoe / tobacco.

Examination of shoot apices in monocotyledon in both T.S. and L.S. to show the origin and arrangement of leaf primordia.

Study of alternate and distichus, alternate and superposed, opposite and superposed, opposite and decussate leaf arrangement through shoot apex.

Microscopic examination of vertical sections of leaves such as Cannabis, tobacco, Nerium, maize and wheat to understand the internal structure of leaf tissue and trichomes, glands etc.

Study of epidermal peels of leaves such as Hibiscus and Tradescantia to study the development and final structure and prepare stomatal index.

-    Examination of L.S. of monocot and dicot roots from prepared or permanent slides to understand the 
     organization of root apical meristem (Use Allium cepa and Helianthus)

-    Study of seed dormancy and methods to break dormancy.


Plant Reproduction :

Study of microsporogenesis and gametogenesis using anthers of maize, Allium, Ipomoea, Dature, Hibiscus.

Tests for pollen viability by Tetrazolium test

In vitro pollen germination using hanging drop and sitting drop cultures, suspension culture and surface culture.

Estimation of pollen germination percentage and average pollen tube length, in vitro Role of transcription and translation inhibitors on pollen germination and pollen tube growth.

Study of self incompatibility in in vitro pollination.

Study of ovules and embryo sac types through permanent slides.

Study of nuclear and cellular endosperm through dissection and staining.

Isolation of zygotic globular, heart shaped, torpedo stage and mature embryos from suitable seeds and polyembryony in citrus, Mangifera and jamun (Syzigium cumini) by dissection.



[NEW COURSE]  [50 Marks]


1.    Identify and describe the peculiarities observed in materials "A" and "B".

2.    Refer the specimens "C", "D" and "E" to their respective families giving reasons including floral 
       formula and floral diagram.    

3.    Identify and write ethnobotanocal importance of given materials "F" and "G" Mention their sources 
       along with botanical names and families.

4.    Expose and mount as per instruction :

       Torpedo shaped embryo/heart shaped embryo/cellular endosperm/nuclear endosperm from given 
       material "H". 


4.    Perform the following :

       In vitro pollen germination by handing drop method/suspension method or pollen viability test from 
       given material "H"     

5.    Expose and mount diad/tetred/tapetum from given material "I"

6.    Dissect out the root apex/vegetative shoot apex/reproductive shoot apex from the given material "J". 
       Stain and mount and show the zonations to the examiner.

7.    Identify and write peculiarities observed in slides "K", "L" and "M".

8.    (a)    Submission and viva - voca

       (b)    Journal       

Paper - III Biochemistry and Plant Physiology    


Unit - 1    Biochemistry :    20 Marks [30 hours]

1.    Carbohydrates :

       (1) Occurrence (2) Classification (3) Structure and functions of monosaccharides, disaccharides and 
       polysaccharides including starch, cellulose and pectin. 

2.    Proteins :

       (1) Occurrence (2) Classification (3) Structure and importance of actyl lipids and phosphates. (4) 
       Biosynthesis of fatty acids (5) oxidation (6) Role of poly saturated fatty acids. 


Unit - 2    Biochemistry :    20 Marks [30 hours]

1.    Vitamins :

       (1) Occurrence (2) Classification (3) Structure (4) Their role in metabolism (5) Development of disease 
       due to their deficiencies.     

2.    Enzymes :

       (1) Definition (2) Nomenclature (3) Classification (4) Apoenzyme, Coezyme, cofacters and prosthetic 
       groups, isozymes. (5) Allosteric mechanisms, regulatory and active sites (6) Kinetics of enzyme 
       catalysis, Michaelis - Menten equation  and its significations (7) various kinds of inhibition, factors 
       affecting the enzyme action.


Unit - 3    Plant Physiology :    20 Marks [40 hours]

1.    Solute transport :

       1.    Passive and active transport

       2.    Nernst equation, its relationship with membrane potential and distribution of an ion at 

       3.    Goldman equation, its relationship with diffusion potential and prevailing ion gradient across the 

       4.    Role of ATPase as a carrier, cotransport (symoprt) and counter transport (Antiport)

       5.    Ion channels, primary active transport and secondary active transport.

       6.    An overview of various transport processes on plasma membrane and tonoplast of the plant 


2.    Stress Physiology :

       1.    Physiology and water stress development of internal water deficit in the plants, Physiological 
              response of crop plants to stress and drought resistance.

       2.    Salinity stress : salt resistance, ion stress, mechanism of stress injury and resistance.

       3.    Stress induced gene expression.


Unit - 4    Plant Physiology :    20 Marks [40 hours]

1.    Photosynthesis :

    (i)    Evolution of photosynthetic apparatus, photosynthetic pigment and light harvesting complexes, photo-oxidation of

           water, mechanism of electron and proton transport, carbon assimilation- Calvin cycle, the C4 cycle, the Cam

           pathway, Ecological considerations of C4 and CAM pathway, Photorespiration, its ecological and biochemical


2.    Respiration :

    (i)    Overview of plant respiration, glycolysis, TCA cycle, ATP synthesis through oxidative electron transport chain

           and alternate pathway; chemiosmotic regenration of ATP during respiration; model of F0-F1 ATPase and its role

           in ATP synthesis; Pentose phosphate pathway; gluconeogenesis.


Unit - 5    Plant Physiology                40 hours                            20 Marks

1.    Plant Growth regulators :

    (i)    Their biosynthesis, translocation, bioassay, mode of action and physiological effects, Hormone receptors, signal

           Transduction and gene expression.

2.    Phytochrome and Cytochrome :

    (i)    Their photochemical and biochemical properties, photomorphogenic effects, cellular and molecular mode of

            action, signaling and gene expression.

3.    The Process of Flowering :

    (i)    Photoperiodism and its significance, Endogenous clock and regulation, floral induction and development, Genetic

           and molecular analysis, role of vernalization.