(IN FORCE FROM JUNE-2011)
Students of T Y B Sc. Biotechnology will study papers VI, VII, VIII, IX and X Practical based on these papers.
The total theory periods per week are 9 and there are 9 periods per week of Practical.
The university examination of each paper is of 3 hours duration. The total marks of 5 papers are 350(70+70+70+70+70) for university examination and 150 marks are reserved for internal examination, presence and assignment work. The university practical examination is of 175 marks and 75 marks for internal evaluation. The annual practical examination is of 21 hours, distributed over a period of 3 days.
The students must record the Practical in the journal as well as in laboratory record book and get it signed by the concerned faculty member. The journal and laboratory record book certified by the head of the department must be produced at the time of university examination for assigning the marks.
TEACHING AND EVALUATION SCHEME
|EXTERNAL EVALUATION MARKS||INTERNATIONAL EVALUATION MARKS|
Theory examination: For university and internal examinations all five units of all five papers will carry equal marks weight age.
Practical examination: For university and internal practical examination all five papers will carry equal marks weight age.
Unit – 1 Introduction to bioprocessing
1.1 Concept of Fermentation, Range of fermentation processes & component parts of fermentation process.
1.2 Basic concept of growth : Definition, growth rate and generation time, kinetics of growth and growth equation.Measurement of growth: cell
mass and cell number.Normal growth curve of bacteria.Diauxic growth, continuous growth, synchronous growth.Efficiency of growth, growth
yield, maintenance energy.
1.3 Growth kinetics.Batch, fed-batch and continuous culture (chemostat and turbidostat )
1.4 Isolation and Preservation of Industrial Important Microorganisms.Enrichment & Screening. Preservation techniques
1.5 Strain Improvement Criteria for selection of industrially important organisms. Principals involved in screening of Natural and Induced mutants
for primary and secondary metabolites Application of Recombination and r-DNA technology
Unit- 2 Concept of fermentation media and inoculum development
2.1 Media for Industrial fermentation:
Types of media,Criteria for selection on raw materials, Media ingredients, Raw materials used formulation of media,
2.2 Media ingredients, Raw materials used formulation of media,
2.3 Sterilization of Media & Air Principal and methods of Heat & Filter sterilization
2.4 Sterilization of Media & Air Principal and methods of Filter sterilization
2.5 Inoculum Development :
Typical Inoculum Development program, Inocula development for Bacteria, Yeast and Fungal processes. Aseptic Inoculation of Plant
Unit – 3 design of fermenter and down stream processing.
3.1 Design of Fermenter Basic design, concoction and functions of fermenters, Aeration & Agitation, Significance of Aeration, KLa dermination,
Factors Affecting KLa. Achievement & Maintenance of Aseptic conditions, Types of fermenters: Tower, Cylindroconical, Air lift, Acetator -
Cavitator,Bioreactors for animal cell cultures
3.3 Overview of downstream processing. Removal of Solid & Microbial Cells and other solid Matter, Foam separation, Precipitation, Filtration and
3.4 Cell disruption
3.5 Chromatography, Liquid-Liquid extraction, Distillation, Membrane proesses
3.6 Drying & Crystallization
Unit -4 Solid fermentation and fermentation of food products.
4.1 An overview of solid state fermentation, Application Mushroom cultivation
4.2 Bioassay of Growth inhibiting and Growth Promoting substances
4.3 Introduction to Fermented foods;pickles, sauerkraut, silage, sausages,bread and Indian fermented foods, mushrooms
4.4 Fermented dairy product, starter culture; cheese—types, curdling, processing and ripening. Other fermented dairy products: introduction to
yogurt, cultured buttermilk acidophilus milk, kafir and cultured sour cream.
Unit - 5 Typical fermentations.
5.1 Fermentation processes of Enzyme (Amylase)
5.2 Fermentation processes of alcohol, organic acids (Citric acid)
5.3 Fermentation processes of amino acids (Lysine), vitamins (Vit. B12)
5.4 Fermentation processes of antibiotics (penicillin)
5.5 Fermentation processes of SCP, SCO, Baker's yeast, Biofertilizers.
5.6 Fermentation economics.
LIST OF LAB EXERCISE :
Exp1 Isolation, Screening and characterization of Lipolytic, Proteolytic,
Amylolytic microbes and Enzymes.
Exp2 Screening of antibiotic producing microorganisms.
Exp3 To demonstrate various techniques of bioassay for antibiofatic and vitamins
Exp4 Optimization of medium parameters for the production of biomass and enzymes (Amylases)
Exp5 Typical fermentation of alcohol, gluconic acid citric acid.
Exp6 Separation and purification of antibiotic from fermentated broth.
Exp7 Determination of growth phases of microganisms.
Exp8 Study of UV mutagenesis on growth and pigment pigmentation. Isolation of antibiotic resistant mutant(s) bacterium
a. by direct selection (positive selection technique)
b. indirect selection (negative selection)
Exp9 Sterility testing.
LIST OF BOOKS :
Mukhopadhyay, Process Biotechnology Fundamental. Viva book.
2. Shuler and Kargi, 1992. Bioprocess engineering, Prentice-Hall.
3. Bialy & Ollis.1986. Biochemical Eng. Fundaments. McGraw-Hill.
4. Schugerl. 1987. Bioreaction engineering, J/W.
5. Stanbury and Whitaker. Principles of fermentation technology.
6. Sikyta. Methods in Industrial microbiology. Ellis Hardwood Ltd.
7. Krysman. Product recovery in bioprocess technology.
8. T.K. Ghose. Bioprocess computation in biotechnology, Ellis Hardwood Ltd.
9. Murry Joh. 1997. Microorganisms and Biotechnology.
10. Demain efal. (ED) 1999. Manual of industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology. Asin Press.
11. Bioprocess Engineering Principles by Doran (D); Academic Press, 1998.
12. Cooney, A.E. Humphrey, Comprehensive Biotechnology : The principles and Regulation of Biotechnology in Industry,
Agriculture and Medicine. Vol.2, Pergamon Press, 1985.
Unit 1- Topology DNA, DNA replication and DNA repair mechanisms.
1.1 DNA supercoiling : Linking number, positive and negative and positive super coiling, role of topoisomerase and its catalytic mechanism
1.2 Replication of DNA: Meselsone –Stahl experiment as land mark experiment. Biochemistry of DNA replication. Catalytic mechanism of DNA
1.3 Replication in bacteria: Enzymes/ Proteins involved in replication, structure of E.col origin (Oric), initiation of replication and its regulation,
elongation and termination of replication.
1.4 Eukaryotic replication: ARS sequences of yeast and other eukaryotic origins, enzymes and proteins involved in replication, formation of Pre-
Replicative complex and activation of Pre-Replicative complex, cell cycle dependent regulation of initiation, elongation and replication of ends
of linear DNA by telomerase.
1.5 DNA repair mechanisms: Mismatch DNA repair, nucleotide excision repair, base excision repair, direct DNA repair, SOS response.
1.6 Recombination: Homologous DNA recombination-Holiday models, molecular events. Site specific DNA recombination-molecular events.
Unit 2- Process of transcription and translation
2.1 Prokaryotic transcription: DNA dependent RNA synthesis, RNA polymerase of Bacteria and its factors, Promoter elements-strong and weak
promoters, structure of Sigma 70 promoters, role of sigma factor in initiation of transcription, process of Elongation and termination of
transcription: rho dependent and rho independent.
2.2 Eukaryotic transcription: RNA polymerases of eukaryotes, structure of eukaryotic Promoters, transcription by RNA pol 1, 2 and 3.
2.3 Post transcriptional modification: G capping of eukaryotic mRNA, process of Poly A tail formation. Splicing: Splicing in different groups of
intrones, concept of Ribozyme, evolutionary aspects of splicing.
2.4 Genetic code: Historical prospective of discovery of genetic code, features of Genetic code and wobble hypothesis.
2.5 Prokaryotic translation: Activation of amino acids, initiation, elongation and termination of translation.
2.6 Eukaryotic translation: Activation of amino acids, initiation, elongation and termination of translation. Post translational modification and
overview of protein trafficking.
Unit 3- Regulation of gene expression and introduction to genetic engineering.
3.1 Regulation of gene regulation in prokaryotes- an overview.
3.2 Operon system: lac operon, trp operon and Immunity operon of bacteriophage Lamda.
3.3 Gene regulation in eukaryotes: DNA binding proteins of eukaryotes, brief discussion about Activators of eukaryotic genes, example of gene
regulation-yeast galactose utilizing Genes., RNA interference a mode of gene regulation.
3.4 Basic concept of Recombinant DNA technology and gene cloning.
3.5 Proteins and enzymes involved in r-DNA technologies.
3.6 Cloning and expression vectors:: simple plasmid based cloning and expression vectors, special purpose vector for regulation of expression of
cloned gene, bacteriophage lamda based vectors, cosmids, P1 based vector, PAC, BAC. , Phagemids, High capacity yeast cloning vector:-
YAC, specialized yeast vectors: pYES and pPPICZ
3.7 Application of linker, adaptor and homopolymer tail in joining diverse DNA molecules.
3.8 Gene Transfer mechanism for Bacteria and Yeast
4.1 Blotting and hybridization: preparation and labeling of probe, southern blotting, Colony blotting, dot blotting, hybridization and detection of
probe using autoradiography. FISH
4.2 Polymerase chain reaction techniques: basic PCR technique, variation of PCR techniques and their applications.
4.3 Sequencing of DNA: Sanger’s method for DNA sequencing, automated DNA sequencings, pyrosequencing, microarray based sequencing.
4.4 Chemical and automated DNA Synthesis
4.5 Cloning strategies: Construction of genomic and cDNA library and screening of Gene in library, PCR as an alternative for cloning and screening
4.6 Changing genes: Site directed mutagenesis and introduction to protein engendering
4.7 Introduction to genome mapping: use of RFLP’s, SNP’s, AFLP's., Chromosome walking
4.8 Applications of rDNA technology: gene therapy, expression of therapeutic proteins, application of rDNA technology in forensic science
Unit- 5 Bioinformatics
5.1 Introduction to Bioinformatics: History and Overview, Scope of Bioinformatics In Biotechnology, Bioinformatics and Internet,
5.2 Components of Bioinformatics : Biological Databases(DNA Database, Protein Database,) , Biological sequence analysis - ( Pair wise and
Multiple Alignment ),Biological Software (Rasmo,Cn3D,Clustal W), Molecular Terms (XML,GAME)
5.3 Genomics: Genome and Genome analysis, Gene Fiding, Genome annotation, Types of Genomics Proteomics: Types of proteomics, Microarray,
SAGE, 2-D PAGE
5.4 Human Genome Project: History, Method of Sequencing Human Genome, Present Status of HGP, Application and ELSI
5.5 Bioinformatics Application: Phylogenetics, Pharmacogenomics (Drug Discovery), Crop Genomics (Agroinfomatics), Metabolomics , Chemo
LIST OF EXERCISES:
Exp 1. Preparation of genomic DNA from bacteria
Exp 2. Isolation of genomic DNA from Goat Liver
Exp 3. Isolation of plant DNA.
Exp 4. Isolation of DNA from yeast cells.
Exp 5. Isolation of DNA from bacterial cells.
Exp 6. Isolation of RNA from yeast cells.
Exp. 7. Demostration of restriction digestion of bacteriophage lamda.
Exp. 8. Agarose electrophoresis of DNA.
Exp. 9. Isolation of plasmid DNA
Exp. 10 Preparation of competent cells and transformation of plasmid DNA.
Exp. 11 Quantification of DNA by spectrophotometry.
Exp. 12 Quantification of RNA by spctrophotometry.
Exp. 13.Demonstration of various domains (search engines) for bioinformatics through Internet.
Exp. 14.Usage of NCBI resources for Biological Information(PUBMED).
Exp. 15.Visualization of protein structures using - Rasmol.
List of Reference books
1. Molecular of biology of gene –J.D.Watson.
2. Principle of biochemistry-A.Leheninger
4. Principle of gene manipulation- S.B.Primrose.
5. Gene cloning: T.A.Brown
6. Molecular Biotechnology –Principles and practices-Channarayappa.
7. Genes 8- Benjamin Lewin
8. William Bains. Biotechnology from A to Z
9. Molecular biotechnology, 2nd Ed. Blackwell
10. Mickios and Freyer. DNA science. A first course in recombinant DNA
11. Mitechell. Introduction to Genetic Algorithms. Prentice-Hall
12. David Mount,Bioinformatics
13. Bioinformatics – Managing Scientific Data, Zoe’ Lacroix and Terence Critchlow
14. Bioinformatics – Sequence, Structure and Databanks, Des Higgins & Willie Taylor
Unit- 1 Overview of Tissue Culture
1.1 Plant Tissue culture : History, Plant tissue culture laboratory design and development, The plant tissue culture laboratory working procedure,
The laboratory facilities: Equipments and apparatus
1.2 Plant tissue culture media: Media composition, Types of media, media preparation procedure and sterilization of media
1.3 Selection, isolation and preparation of explant
1.4 Concept of totipotency and cytodifferentiation
1.6 Micropropagation and its stages
Unit 2 Techniques of tissue culture
2.1 Culture of organized tissues
2.2 Root culture, shoot culture, meristem culture, embryo culture
2.3 Callus culture
2.4 Pollen and anther culture and its importance
2.5 Protoplast culture.
2.6 Somatic embryogenesis
2.7 Cell suspension culture and production of secondary metabolite
2.8 Somatic hybridization and its application.
2.9 Synthetic seeds
2.10 Cryo preservation and distribution of clonal material
Unit 3 Plant Tissue culture and Plant Biotechnology
3.1 Physical and chemical methods used for gene transfer in plants
3.2 Agro bacterium mediated gene transfer in plants
3.3 Other biological gene transfer methods
3.4 Structure of plant gene
3.5 Plant cloning vectors: Use of different promoters, selectable markers, reporter genes
3.6 Seed terminator technology
3.7 Chloroplast transformation – a potential alternative to nuclear transformation
3.8 Transgenic plants: Insect resistance, herbicide resistance, Disease resistance,Stress tolerance, improvement of crop yield and quality,
3.9 GM food: Ethical issues, future prospects of GM food.
Unit 4 Overview of Animal Tissue Culture
4.1 Animal Tissue Culture: History and Scope of Animal Tissue Culture, Culture media, Natural and chemically defined media, Serum Containig and
Serum free media, other supplements in media and their use.
4.2 Primary cultures: Primary Cultures, Cell lines and Its Maintanance, Finite and
Continuous cell lines, Tissue Disaggregating by Mechanical and Enzymatic methods, Subculturing Secondary Culture – transformed animal cells
and continious cell lines
4.3 Organ Culture : Methods of Organ culture, utility of organ culture, Culture of adult organs, Cryopreservation and transport of animal tissue
and cell lines
4.4 Bioreactors: Bioreactor for large scale culture of cells, Expression vector for Animal cell, Expression of Cloned proteins in animal cell, Over
production and dowm stream processing of the expressed proteins.
4.5 Cloning : Overview, Methods of Cloning, Application and Ethics, In vitro fertilization and embryo transfer, Application
Unit - 5 Animal Tissue culture and Animal Biotechnology
5.1 Hybridoma Technology : Hybridoma and monoclonal antibodies, Production, Methods, Types of Monoclonal Antibodies, Application
5.2 Vaccines: Production of Vaccines in animal Cells, Methodology, Application and Limitation
5.3 Transgenic animals: Techniques for the production of Transgenic Mice, Fish and ship, Product produce from Transgenic Animal
5.4 Stem Cell Technology: Overview and Types of Stem Cell, Characteristics of Stem Cell, Application of Stem cell in Therapy.
5.5 Application : Application of animal cell culture for in vitrotesting of drugs; Cytotoxicity and Testing of toxicity of environmental pollutants in
cell culture; Abzymes
LIST OF LABORATORY EXERCISES:
Exp1 Sterilization and related techniques used in tissue culture.
- Hot Air Oven
- Filter Sterilization
- Surface sterilization
- Demonstration of all techniques related to sterilization, transfer and of Laminar Air How Hood and UV.
Exp2 Preparation of Media and media composition
Exp3 Introduction of explants for Callusing
Exp4 Characterization of Callus
Exp5 Sub culturing of Callus
Exp6 Isolation of protoplasts
Exp7 Establishment of primary cell lines
Exp8 Isolation of Chick embryo
Exp9 Embryo transfer method
LIST OF REFERENCE BOOKS :
1. Enger. Concepts in biology. Tata McGraw-Hill.
2. Iganacimatha. Basic biotechnology.
3. Das and Mookerjee. Outline of biology.
4. Roy and De. Cell biology
5. Biotechnology, Demystifying the concepts. By David Bourgaize Alp. 2000
6. Eric. S. Grace. Biotechnology unzipped : Promises and realities
7. Williams Barns. Biotechnology from A to Z
8. Barnum. Biotechnology : A Introduction. 1999 Books Cole Pub. Co.
9. Becker. 1996. Biotechnology : A laboratory course. Alp.
10. Cohn and Stumph. Outline of Biochemistry, Wiley eastern.
11. Miglani. Dictionary of plant genetics and molecular biology. Viva Books.
12. Jan kav. Introduction to Animal physiology. Viva Books
13. Jurd. Animal biology. Viva Books
14. Twyman. Developmental Biology. Viva Books
15. Iganacimatha. Appl. Plant Biotechnology.
16. K.K. De. Plant tissue culture
17. Babinnk and philips. 1989. Animal Biotechnology. Pergamonn.
18. Gibert. Developmental biology.
19. Radint and Bhojwani. Plant and tissue culture.
20. Dixon and Gonzales. Plant cell culture. A practical approach. IRL press.
21. Jenklus N. 1999. Animal cell biotechnology. Methods and protocols Human press
22. Butler and Walter, 1997. Animal cell cultures and technology : The basics. IRL press
23. Verpoorte, R. (ed.) 2000. Metabolic engineering of plant secondary methabolism.
24. Masters JRW (ED.) Animal cell culture : A practical approach. 2000. OUP.
25. Elements of Biotechnology : P.K. Gupta.
26. Molecular biotechnology : Bernard, R. Glick and Pasternak.
27. Animal cell culture : Morgan.
28. Cell culture : Bulter and Dawson.
Unit 1 Introduction to Environment Science
1.1 Terrestrial Biomes: - Deserts, Grasslands, Tundra & Forests and Aquatic Biomes: Freshwater & Saline Ecosystem
1.2 Biogeochemical Cycles: Nitrogen, Carbon & Sulfur cycle
1.3 Biodiversity: - Factors affecting biodiversity, Biodiversity conservation
1.4 Interaction within, between & among populations
1.5 Population Ecology, Population characteristics, Models of population growth and Interactions
Unit-2 Microbial Habitat and Biodegradation
2.1 Microbes and their habitats
2.2 Extremophiles and their importance
2.3 Basic aspects of biodegradation of pollutant by microorganisms.
2.4 Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons, biodegradation of poly aromatic Compounds, PCBs, Biotransformation of DDT, Oxidative and
reductive Pathways for nitrobenzene biodegradation, biodegradation of PCE and TCE.
Unit- 3 Waste water treatment
3.1 Conventional Air Pollutants & Acid rain & Acid mine drainage
3.2 Drinking water: Sources, water purification-Dwelling supply and Municipal Supply, microbiological analysis of drinking water, role of indicator
organisms, W.H.O microbiological standards for drinking water.
3.3 Physical, chemical & Biological properties of Wastewater
3.4 Primary & Secondary treatment, (Biological oxidation processes)
3.5 Tertiary treatment process, Treatment of solid wastes (Anaerobic digestion and composting)
Unit- 4 Application of Environment Biotechnology
4.1 Bioremediation: types and overview of bioremediation of air, soil and water.
4.5 Bioleaching and MEOR(Microbial enhanced oil recovery)
Unit -5 Nitogen fixation,Bioenergy and Metagenomics
5.1 Basic of Biological Nitrogen Fixation and its importance
5.2 Metagenomics: Science of uncultivable microorganisms, purification of DNA from different environmental samples, construction of
metagenomic library, screening metagenomic library for novel enzymes, functional based approach and sequence based approach, use of
SIGEX method. Application of metagenomics.
5.3 Bioenergy: Production and application: Biogas, bioethanol, biodiesel, Hydrogen gas.
List of laboratory exercises:
Exe:-1 Isolation of microorganisms from contaminated sources(water, soil) and screening for their potential to degrade xenobiotic
Exw:-2 Analysis of waste water
a. To study sampling techniques, sample preservation
b. To visit local sewage treatment plant to study its design, operation of primary,secondary, tertiary systems and mode of disposal
c. To collect grab and composite sample
d. Analysis of physical-Chemical parameters: TS,TDS, Colur, Tubidity, pH, DO, COD, BOD,Total-N, PO4-P, NO3-N, NO2-N, NH4-N, chloride,
e. Bacteriological analysis by MPN technique
Exe:-3 Isolation of nitrogen fixers from soil
Exe:-4 To determine MNP of Nitrifying organisms from soil
Exe:-5 To determine MNP of endospore formers
Exe:-6 Isolation of DNA from environment tal sample(soil)
Exp:-7 study of air microflora
Unit - 1 Introduction to Analysis
1.1 Concept of Good Laboratory Practice and Quality Management
1.2 Analysis: Steps of Analysis
1.3 Basic Aspects of Qualitative Analysis
1.4 Basic Aspect of Quantitative Analysis.
Unit - 2 Spectroscopy
2.1 Interaction of EM radiation with matter : Overview of Electromagnetic spectrum; physical phenomenon : Absorption, Resonance
fluorescence, Emission, Refraction, Diffraction, Scattering, Raman Scattering, Resonance Raman Scattering, Beer-Lambert's Laws.
2.2 UV-Vis spectrophotometer: Principle, Instrumentation, working and
2.3 Atomic spectroscopy: Principles and application of Atomic Absorption / Emission Spectrometer
2.4 Mass Spectroscopy, MALDI
2.5 Basics of IR and NMR and their application in biotechnology and Basics of X-Ray diffraction analysis and their application in biotechnology
Unit - 3 Advance microscopy methods and centrifugation.
3.1 Differential interference contrast microscopy. Electron microscopy: TEM and SEM, Atomic force microscopy and con focal scanning laser
3.2 Protein sequencing by automated Edmen degradation process.
3.3 Filtrations: Types and their application
3.4 Distillation, Crystallization and Dialysis
3.5 Centrifugation: Theory of centrifugation and sedimentation, use and design of different types of rotors Types of centrifuges, Preparative and
analytical centrifugation Density gradient centrifugation (zonal and isophycnic), differential centrifugation), Application of centrifugation for
preparative and analytical purpose.
Unit - 4 Chromatography and Electrophoresis:
4.1 Chromatography :Basic Theory of Chromatography, Plate and Rate Theory and HETP, Partition theory and solvent extraction theory
Introduction to key terms: retention time, retardation factor(Rf), elution, Capacity factor ,peak shapes, bard broadenings, column
Efficiency and resolution, selectivity, normal and reverse phase chromatography, countercurrent chromatography.
4.2 Partition and adsorption chromatography
4.3 Different techniques of chromatography: Principle, stationary and Mobile phase, operation ,Detection/elusion of solute, Application -Planner
Chromatography, (Paper Chromatography, TLC) , GC, Ion exchange chromatography, Gel exclusion chromatography, Affinity,
chromatography, HPLC and FPLC .Adsorption chromatography-Hydroxylapatitie chromatography and hydrophobic chromatography.
4.4 Electrophoresis : Theory of electrophoresis, electrophoresis of protein-PAGE,SDS-PAGE,Agarose electrophoresis of nucleic acid, Iso electric
focusing of protein pulse gel electrophoresis and western blotting.
Unit - 5 Biosensor and Immobilization
5.1 Biosensors : Principles and definition, characteristics of Ideal biosensors, Basic measuring procedure, Biochemical components of biosensors :
Enzyme based biocatalyst sensors, Bioaffinity systems, Immunosensors
5.2 Application of Biosensors: Clinical laboratory, In vivo determination of metabolites, Environmental monitoring of toxic compound. .
5.3 Immobilization: Basic concept of immobilization in biotechnology, Principles and mechanism of Immobilization, Methods of Immobilization
5.4 Bioreactor for Immobilization: Bioreactor and their Types , Choice of reactors, Choice of immobilization methods, Properties of immobilized
5.5 Supporting matrices: Supporting matrices used in Immobilization and their properties, Examples of the Immobilization techniques in Industrial
LIST OF LABORATORY EXERCISES :
Exp1 Introduction to quality control. Use concepts of accuracy and precision.
Exp2 compute component of given percentage solution, molarity solution, PRN,
PPS solution and stock solution.
Exp3 pH meter :
- List uses of pH meter, measurement, detailed diagram of pH electrod and reference electrode (combined electrod also), find pH of a
solution giving detailed account of pH meter operation, troubleshouting.
- Preparation of solution using pH meter.
- Demonstration of the effect of the solution
Exp4 Spectroscopy :
- To determine maximum absorption spectra of mixtures (potassium dichromate and potassium permanganate) solution.
Exp5 Centrifugation :
- Measure components and working of centrifuges, solving g and RPM of centrifuge with respect to various heads. rotors
- Isolation of cellular organelles by differential centrifugation
Exp6 Chromatography :
- Solvent-solvent extraction of plant pigmnets,
- Use of paper chromatography for separation of plant pigments
- Use of thin-layer chromatography for amino acid (TLC)
- Demonstration of Ion-exchange chromatography
- Demonstration of Gel-exclusion chromatography
Exp7 Electrophoresis: Electrophoresis of protein by SDS-PAGE
Exp 8 Electrophoresis of protein by PAGE
Exp-9 Demonstration of Sterilization of solution by filteration
Exp-10Demonstration of Dialysis
LIST OF REFERENCE BOOKS :
1. Harmes. Biochemistry 2nd Ed. Viva Book.
2. Fisher. Chemistry for biologists. Viva books
3. Wilson & Walker. 1995. Principles and techniques of practical Biochemistry. Cambridge Univ. Press.
4. Davidson V.L. & Sistman. 1993. Biochemistry.
5. Blood & other 1996. Laboratory DNA Science. Benjamin.
6. Boyer, 2001. Modern Experimental bioch, 3/e, Addison.
7. Becker. 1996. Biotechnology : A laboratory course. Alp.
8. Plumner. An introduction to practical Biochemistry
9. J.Jayraman, Lab Manual in Biochemistry
10. Chirikjian, J.P. 1995. Biotechnology Theory and Techniques for undergraduate laboratory Vol.-1 Jones and Bariett Pub.
11. Tinoco. land others. 1995. Physical chemistry Principles and applications in biological Sciences, Prentice-Hall.
12. Paul H. Teesdale & others 2001. Essentials of Biological chemistry. J/W.
13. Switzer and Gauity. 1995. Experimental Biochemistry WH Freeman.
14. Voet Donald. 1999. Fundamentals of Biochemistry, J/W.
15. Athel Cornish - Bowder. 1999. Basic mathematics for biochemistry. OUP.
16. Elliott & Elliot, 2001. Biochemistry and molecular biology, OUP.
17. Millar Thomas (ED.), 2000, Biochemistry explained : A practical guide to learning Biochemistry Hardwood Aca. Pub.
18. Haynie, D.T. 2001. Biological thermodynamics Cambridge Univ. Press.
19. Hargreaves and hmpson (Ed.) 1999. Biochemistry of Exercises X. Human Kinetics Publ.
20. Aldridge, Susan : 1994. Biochemistry : a textbook for A - level biology : Practical Guide Cambridge Uni. Press.
21. Sidman and Moore, 2000. Basic laboratory methods for biotechnology, Lovgman